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EHP:公共场所禁烟可明显降低二手烟危害

2011/12/16 来源:新华网
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英国巴斯大学等机构的研究人员在新一期《环境卫生展望》杂志上报告说,在2007年英格兰颁布公共场所禁烟令之后,人们受二手烟的危害明显下降。

英国巴斯大学等机构的研究人员在新一期《环境卫生展望》杂志上报告说,在2007年英格兰颁布公共场所禁烟令之后,人们受二手烟的危害明显下降。

他们对3万多名16岁以上成人受二手烟的影响进行了调查,主要指标是他们唾液中可替宁的含量。可替宁是烟草中含有的一种物质,它在唾液中的含量能比较客观地反映出人们受二手烟的影响程度。

结果显示,在2007年英格兰立法禁止在公共场所吸烟以后,人们受二手烟影响的程度下降了27%。

研究人员米歇尔·西姆斯说,这有力地证实了在公共场所禁烟有利于人们的健康,有许多研究显示,长期受二手烟影响会带来心血管疾病、癌症、呼吸道疾病和影响怀孕等多方面的健康风险。

但本次研究也显示,那些家中有人吸烟的人群,在公共场所禁烟后受二手烟的影响程度没有明显变化。研究人员因此呼吁,烟民们应该注意避免影响家人的健康。


Did Smokefree Legislation in England Reduce Exposure to Secondhand Smoke among Non-Smoking adults? Cotinine Analysis from the Health Survey for England

Background: On 1st July 2007, smokefree legislation was implemented in England, making virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces smokefree.

Objectives: To analyse trends in and predictors of secondhand smoke exposure among non-smoking adults, whether exposure changed after the introduction of smokefree legislation and whether these changes varied by socio-economic and household smoking status.

Methods: Analysis of salivary cotinine data from the Health Survey for England, collected in seven of 11 annual surveys undertaken between 1998 and 2008. We conducted multivariate regression analyses to examine secondhand smoke exposure as measured by the proportion of non-smokers with undetectable cotinine and by geometric mean cotinine.

Results: Secondhand smoke exposure was higher among those exposed at home and in lower socio-economic groups. Exposure declined markedly from 1998 to 2008 (the proportion with undetectable cotinine was 2.9 times higher and geometric mean cotinine declined by 80%). There was a significant fall in exposure after legislation was introduced – the odds of having undetectable cotinine were 1.5 times higher (95% CI: 1.3, 1.8) and geometric mean cotinine fell by 27% (95% CI: 17%, 36%) after adjustment for the pre-legislative trend and potential confounders. Significant reductions were not however seen in those living in lower social class households or homes where smoking occurs inside on most days.

Conclusions: England’s smokefree legislation impacted on secondhand smoke exposure above and beyond the underlying long-term decline demonstrating the positive effect of the legislation. Nevertheless, some population subgroups appear not to have benefitted significantly from the legislation, suggesting that these groups should receive more support to reduce their exposure.

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