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长期倒班工作增加女性患糖尿病风险

2011/12/12 来源:新华网
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经常白班夜班两班倒的女性患Ⅱ型糖尿病的风险显著高于只上白班的女性,而且这种情况持续的时间越长,风险越高。

美国研究人员12月8日公布的报告显示,经常白班夜班两班倒的女性患Ⅱ型糖尿病的风险显著高于只上白班的女性,而且这种情况持续的时间越长,风险越高。

哈佛大学的研究人员分析了17.7万名年龄在42岁至67岁女护士的数据。这些女性参加了长达20年的“护士健康研究”项目,每月至少有3个夜班者被认为属于倒班者。研究人员发现,与只上白班的护士相比,进行两班倒达3年的护士患Ⅱ型糖尿病的风险要高20%;如果情况持续至少20年,这一风险会提高近60%。

参与研究的哈佛大学公共卫生学院胡丙长说:“增加的风险算不上巨大,但也很可观,考虑到美国五分之一的劳动力需要进行某种程度上的两班倒工作,这一结果具有重要的公共卫生意义。”

研究人员认为,这些人患糖尿病风险加大的部分原因是,其饮食和睡眠习惯被打断,生活习惯普遍不健康。另一个可能原因是,不规律的工作时间打乱了身体的生物钟,而生物钟在维持健康的血糖代谢和能量平衡中扮演着重要作用。此前曾有研究表明,缺乏睡眠以及不规则的睡眠苏醒周期会提高体内血糖水平。

这项研究成果当天发表在美国《科学公共图书馆—医学》期刊的网站上。


Rotating Night Shift Work and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Prospective Cohort Studies in Women

An Pan, Eva S. Schernhammer, Qi Sun, Frank B. Hu

Background Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and glucose dysregulation. However, its association with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate this association in two cohorts of US women.

Methods and Findings We followed 69,269 women aged 42–67 in Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I, 1988–2008), and 107,915 women aged 25–42 in NHS II (1989–2007) without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Participants were asked how long they had worked rotating night shifts (defined as at least three nights/month in addition to days and evenings in that month) at baseline. This information was updated every 2–4 years in NHS II. Self-reported type 2 diabetes was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. We documented 6,165 (NHS I) and 3,961 (NHS II) incident type 2 diabetes cases during the 18–20 years of follow-up. In the Cox proportional models adjusted for diabetes risk factors, duration of shift work was monotonically associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in both cohorts. Compared with women who reported no shift work, the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for participants with 1–2, 3–9, 10–19, and ≥20 years of shift work were 1.05 (1.00–1.11), 1.20 (1.14–1.26), 1.40 (1.30–1.51), and 1.58 (1.43–1.74, p-value for trend <0.001), respectively. Further adjustment for updated body mass index attenuated the association, and the pooled hazard ratios were 1.03 (0.98–1.08), 1.06 (1.01–1.11), 1.10 (1.02–1.18), and 1.24 (1.13–1.37, p-value for trend <0.001).

Conclusions Our results suggest that an extended period of rotating night shift work is associated with a modestly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women, which appears to be partly mediated through body weight. Proper screening and intervention strategies in rotating night shift workers are needed for prevention of diabetes.

文献链接:http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001141

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