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Plos One:麋鹿对千年前捕食者仍存“记忆

2011/12/03 来源:科学网
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通过回放捕食者的声音和展示捕食者影像图板,中科院动物所野生动物与行为生态研究组研究人员近日发现,麋鹿对它们历史上曾经的捕食者依然存有“记忆”。

通过回放捕食者的声音和展示捕食者影像图板,中科院动物所野生动物与行为生态研究组研究人员近日发现,麋鹿对它们历史上曾经的捕食者依然存有“记忆”。

在捕食者—猎物生存竞赛中,猎物在听觉、视觉和运动等各个方面进化出逃避捕食者的行为对策。以往研究表明,捕食者的消失可导致猎物反捕食行为的快速丢失,相反的观点认为捕食者消失后猎物的反捕食行为不会立即消失。“多捕食者假说”解释为,现存的捕食者使猎物对历史上其他捕食者的痕迹(声音、图像等)仍会发生行为反应。而“隔离时间”理论推测,与捕食者隔离的时间越长,猎物的反捕食行为就消失得越彻底。

麋鹿已有一千多年的圈养历史,是研究猎物长时间与捕食者隔离后的行为反应的理想模式动物。动物所研究人员发现,麋鹿对历史捕食者的声音和图像表现出恐惧与警戒反应。而且,麋鹿对老虎吼叫声和影像图板的警戒反应最强。研究者推测,虎可能是早期麋鹿的重要捕食者。此项研究结果证实猎物的反捕食行为可在相当长的时间内传递给后代,并为“多捕食者假说”和“隔离时间”理论在解释反捕食行为丢失问题上的分歧提供了证据。该成果于近日发表在《公共科学图书馆—综合》上。


Do Père David's Deer Lose Memories of Their Ancestral Predators?

Chunwang Li, Xiaobo Yang, Yuhua Ding, Linyuan Zhang, Hongxia Fang, Songhua Tang, Zhigang Jiang

Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestral predators), and of lions (potential naïve predator) to Père David's deer in paddocks, and blank sounds to the control group, and videoed the behavior of the deer during the experiment. We also showed life-size photo models of dog, leopard, bear, tiger, wolf, and lion to the deer and video taped their responses after seeing these models. Père David's deer stared at and approached the hidden loudspeaker when they heard the roars of tiger or lion. The deer listened to tiger roars longer, approached to tiger roars more and spent more time staring at the tiger model. The stags were also found to forage less in the trials of tiger roars than that of other sound playbacks. Additionally, it took longer for the deer to restore their normal behavior after they heard tiger roars, which was longer than that after the trial of other sound playbacks. Moreover, the deer were only found to walk away after hearing the sounds of tiger and wolf. Therefore, the tiger was probably the main predator for Père David's deer in ancient time. Our study implies that Père David's deer still retain the memories of the acoustic and visual cues of their ancestral predators in spite of the long term isolation from natural habitat.

文献链接:http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023623

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