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PNAS:男童脑容量过大或与退化性自闭症有关

2011/12/03 来源:新华网
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美国研究人员在新一期《国家科学院学报》上报告说,部分患有退化性自闭症的男童在4个月时大脑就开始异常生长,其脑容量比健康同龄人大6%左右。

美国研究人员在新一期《国家科学院学报》上报告说,部分患有退化性自闭症的男童在4个月时大脑就开始异常生长,其脑容量比健康同龄人大6%左右。

美国加利福尼亚大学戴维斯分校的研究人员分析了180名儿童在2岁到4岁期间的头围和大脑生长数据。这些儿童中61人患退化性自闭症,53人患早发性自闭症,其他为健康儿童。

研究人员发现,患退化性自闭症的男童最早在4个月大时,大脑就开始异常生长,这种状况可以一直持续19个月。健康男童、早发性自闭症男童以及女童的大脑生长都显示正常。

这项研究进一步证明,自闭症存在具有不同神经生物学基础的亚型,而大脑生长异常与男童患退化性自闭症之间具有特别联系。男童大脑迅速生长或许可以作为诊断患有退化性自闭症的一个标准。

自闭症也称孤独症,是一种严重的精神发育障碍。自闭症患者一般在3岁以前就会发病,主要特征是漠视情感、拒绝交流、语言发育迟滞、行为重复刻板以及活动和兴趣范围的显著局限性等。

 

Brain enlargement is associated with regression in preschool-age boys with autism spectrum disorders

Christine Wu Nordahl, Nicholas Lange, Deana D. Li, Lou Ann Barnett, Aaron Lee, Michael H. Buonocore, Tony J. Simon, Sally Rogers, Sally Ozonoff, and David G. Amaral,

Autism is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple behavioral and biological phenotypes. Accelerated brain growth during early childhood is a well-established biological feature of autism. Onset pattern, i.e., early onset or regressive, is an intensely studied behavioral phenotype of autism. There is currently little known, however, about whether, or how, onset status maps onto the abnormal brain growth. We examined the relationship between total brain volume and onset status in a large sample of 2- to 4-y-old boys and girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) [n = 53, no regression (nREG); n = 61, regression (REG)] and a comparison group of age-matched typically developing controls (n = 66). We also examined retrospective head circumference measurements from birth through 18 mo of age. We found that abnormal brain enlargement was most commonly found in boys with regressive autism. Brain size in boys without regression did not differ from controls. Retrospective head circumference measurements indicate that head circumference in boys with regressive autism is normal at birth but diverges from the other groups around 4–6 mo of age. There were no differences in brain size in girls with autism (n = 22, ASD; n = 24, controls). These results suggest that there may be distinct neural phenotypes associated with different onsets of autism. For boys with regressive autism, divergence in brain size occurs well before loss of skills is commonly reported. Thus, rapid head growth may be a risk factor for regressive autism.

文献链接http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/11/14/1107560108.abstract?sid=8674752a-cef4-45ce-bb37-20ddc3e8c35f

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