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上午吃零食影响节食减肥效果

2011/12/01 来源:新华网
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美国研究人员发现,在早餐和午餐间想吃零食往往意味着饮食习惯不健康,上午吃零食影响节食减肥效果。

美国研究人员发现,在早餐和午餐间想吃零食往往意味着饮食习惯不健康,上午吃零食影响节食减肥效果。

美国弗雷德·哈钦森癌症研究中心疾病预防中心负责人安妮·麦克蒂尔南带领研究人员查看123名超重和肥胖女性的节食减肥数据。这些女性年龄在50岁至75岁间,是一项大型减肥研究的参与者。该项研究同时旨在了解饮食与健身对乳腺癌的影响。

研究人员发现,123名调查对象中,97%每天吃零食,76%吃零食时间在下午2时至5时30分间,19%在上午10时30分至11时30分间。

上午吃零食的调查对象每天吃零食更频繁。结果显示,上午吃零食的调查对象中,一天吃零食三次乃至更多者的比例达到47.8%;在下午吃零食的调查对象中,这一比例为38.9%。

一年以后,上午吃零食的人平均减重7%,上午不吃零食的人平均减重11%。

研究人员在由《美国饮食协会期刊》(Journal of the American Dietetic Association)网络版发表的报告中写道,早餐和午餐间隔时间相对较短,期间强烈渴望吃零食可能显示饮食习惯欠健康。

“我的每日健康新闻”网站28日援引麦克蒂尔南的话报道,上午吃零食可能是消遣或盲目进食,而非源于真正的饥饿。

报告说,先前多项研究结果显示,美国人饮食习惯正在发生变化,进食越来越多地受多种诱因影响,而非饥饿一种,人们进食更加频繁,换句话说,进食正变得更“盲目”。

报告说,问题在于,调查对象吃零食并不意味着下一顿正餐摄入食物减少,致使一天摄入热量总数增加。

研究人员说,不能一概而论认为吃零食不利健康,摄取健康的零食有助节食者抵御饥饿,实现减肥目标。

麦克蒂尔南说:“如果节食者因确实饥饿而吃点儿零食,那么零食可以成为节食者的方法之一。”

本月公布的另一项调查结果显示,与不吃零食者相比,吃零食者摄入的水果和全麦食物更多。调查中,每天吃零食两三次的女性摄入纤维素多于每天只吃一次或不吃零食的女性。与不吃零食的人相比,下午吃零食者摄入水果和蔬菜更多。

研究人员总结说:“实施节食减肥的人应当学习在饮食中加入健康零食。”

 

Associations between Snacking and Weight Loss and Nutrient Intake among Postmenopausal Overweight to Obese Women in a Dietary Weight-Loss Intervention

Snacking may play a role in weight control. The associations of timing and frequency of snacking with observed weight change and nutrient intake were assessed in an ancillary study to a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Seattle, WA. Overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women (n=123) enrolled in the two dietary weight-loss arms from 2007 to 2008 with complete data at 12 months were included in these analyses. Generalized linear models were used to test the associations between snacking and weight loss (percent) and nutrient intake at the 12-month time point. Participants were, on average, 58 years old and mainly non-Hispanic white (84%). Ninety-seven percent reported one or more snacks per day. Weight loss (percent) was significantly lower among mid-morning (10:30 am to 11:29 am) snackers (7.0%, 95% confidence interval: 4.3 to 9.7) compared to non–mid-morning snackers (11.4%, 95% confidence interval: 10.2 to 12.6; P=0.005). A higher proportion of mid-morning snackers reported more than one snack per day (95.7%), compared to afternoon (82.8%) and evening (80.6%) snackers, although differences were not statistically significant (P>0.005). Women who reported two or more snacks per day vs one or no snacks per day had higher fiber intake (P=0.027). Afternoon snackers had higher fruit and vegetable intake compared to non–afternoon-snackers (P=0.035). These results suggest that snack meals can be a source for additional fruits, vegetables, and fiber-rich foods; however, snacking patterns might also reflect unhealthy eating habits and impede weight-loss progress. Future dietary weight-loss interventions should evaluate the effects of timing, frequency, and quality of snacks on weight loss.

文献链接http://www.adajournal.org/article/S0002-8223(11)01554-9/abstract

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