每一滴都有风险!柳叶刀权威揭示:饮酒没有“安全值”
2018/08/30
关于酒,很多人喜欢寄希望于“小酌怡情”,适度饮酒似乎在某些情况下还可能有益。然而,《柳叶刀》最新一篇研究却打破了这一说法,最新数据表明饮酒并没有“安全值”!只要饮酒了,就会对健康有影响。


图片来源:Pixabay

8月23日,《柳叶刀》发表了这一篇题为“Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016”的文章,揭示在2016年全球有超20亿人饮酒,63%是男性,有近300万人死于饮酒,其中12%的死亡年龄在15岁至49岁之间。

华盛顿大学健康指标与评估研究所的Emmanuela Gakidou表示:“酒精与过早死亡、癌症和心血管疾病之间都存在关联。而零酒精摄入可以将健康损失的总体风险降至最低。


全球范围内饮酒与健康负担的最全面评估

这项研究是全球疾病负担年度报告(GBD)的一部分,共评估了195个国家和地区在1990年至2016年期间与酒精相关的健康结果和模式,并按年龄和性别进行了分析,共涉及23种疾病和因喝酒而导致的意外风险。

来自40多个国家的超500名GDB合作者参与了这项研究。他们共分析了694个关于个人和人群饮酒量数据库,以及592 个关于酒精摄入风险的前瞻性和回顾性研究,综合系统的分析了全球范围内酒精摄入与死亡、残疾及疾病之间的关系。

国家/地区差异

饮酒模式会因为国家、性别、每位饮酒者的平均消费量以及相关疾病负担而表现出很大的差异。

“平均饮用量”指的是一种标准值,在这项研究中定义为每人每天饮用10g纯酒精,大约相当于:一小杯红酒(100毫升,酒精浓度为13%)、一罐或者一瓶啤酒(375毫升,酒精浓度为3.5%)或者一杯威士忌或其他烈酒(30毫升,酒精浓度为40%)。

不同的国家有不同的“标准值”,例如在英国,一杯标准饮料是8g酒精,而在澳大利亚、美国和日本分别是10g、14g和20g。

饮酒是死亡主因

2016年,酒精是引发死亡、伤残调整寿命年(DALYs)的第七大主因。而且,在15-49 岁人群中,饮酒是“头号杀手”,其中因酒精而导致的死亡的前三种原因分别是肺结核、交通事故以及自残、自杀。而对于50岁以上人群,由酒精引发的癌症是主要的死亡原因。

对于15岁至49岁人群而言,2016年因饮酒导致死亡概率最低的10个国家中,有8个位于中东:科威特、伊朗、巴勒斯坦、利比亚、沙特阿拉伯、也门、约旦和叙利亚。另外两个是马尔代夫和新加坡。

相反,死亡率最高的10个国家有7个位于波罗的海或者中亚地区,分别是俄罗斯、乌克兰、立陶宛、白俄罗斯、蒙古、拉脱维亚和哈萨克斯坦。另外三个国家是莱索托、布隆迪和中非共和国。

不喝酒才是“王道”

去年,ASCO正式声明酒精是明确的致癌因素,全球约有5%-6%的癌症发病和死亡是由酒精直接引起的。今年4月,《柳叶刀》曾发表一篇文章揭示即使适量饮酒也与心脏和循环系统疾病有关。而且,每周饮酒超过5杯可能会缩短寿命。

“现在,我们知道,酒精是当今世界致死的主要原因之一,它会以多种方式威胁健康和生命。” 《柳叶刀》杂志编辑Richard Horton表示,“我们需要立即采取行动,阻止数百万人的死亡。”

责编:风铃

参考资料:

New scientific study: no safe level of alcohol

所有文章仅代表作者观点,不代表本站立场。如若转载请联系原作者。
查看更多
  • Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    Background Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older. Methods Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health. Findings Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1·5–3·0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6·8% (5·8–8·0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15–49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3·8% (95% UI 3·2–4·3) of female deaths and 12·2% (10·8–13·6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15–49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2·3% (95% UI 2·0–2·6) and male attributable DALYs were 8·9% (7·8–9·9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1·4% [95% UI 1·0–1·7] of total deaths), road injuries (1·2% [0·7–1·9]), and self-harm (1·1% [0·6–1·5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27·1% (95% UI 21·2–33·3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18·9% (15·3–22·6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0·0–0·8) standard drinks per week. Interpretation Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.

    展开 收起
发表评论 我在frontend\modules\comment\widgets\views\文件夹下面 test