3篇论文证明“吃鱼好”:提高智商、预防帕金森、保护心脏健康……
2018/05/25
近日,一项新的研究再次肯定了美国心脏协会的建议,即每周吃2次鱼(尤其是富含Omega-3脂肪酸的鱼)可帮助降低患心力衰竭、冠心病、心脏骤停和常见中风的风险。


图片来源:Circulation( https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000574)

相关成果以“Seafood Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association”为题于5月17日发表在Circulation杂志上。

哈佛大学陈曾熙公共卫生学院的流行病学和营养学教授Eric B. Rimm说:“自2002年美国心脏协会发布关于‘吃鱼’的最后一条建议以来,科学研究进一步证实了食用富含Omega-3脂肪酸的海产品的益处,尤其是当它们取代了不那么健康的食物时。”

具体来说,该协会建议,每周吃2份3.5盎司的非油炸鱼或3/4杯鱼片(flaked fish)。其中,被重点推荐的是油性鱼类(oily fish),如鲑鱼、鲭鱼、鲱鱼、鳟鱼、沙丁鱼或长鳍金枪鱼,它们都富含Omega-3脂肪酸。

撰写该建议的营养学专家们还回顾了关于鱼中所含汞的研究。他们得出的结论是,尽管汞污染可能与新生儿严重的神经系统问题有关,但现有的科学研究发现,汞污染没有对成人心脏病风险产生不利的影响,并且“吃鱼”的益处大大超过汞污染带来的任何风险。

不过,值得一提的是,美国心脏协会此前发布的一份关于Omega-3鱼油补充剂的建议指出,由于缺乏科学证据,不建议公众服用这些补充剂来预防临床心血管疾病。


证明“吃鱼好”的其他2篇论文

事实上,除上述成果外,近期,科学家们找到了多项证明“吃鱼好”的证据。去年12月发表在Nature子刊Scientific Reports杂志上题为“The mediating role of sleep in the fish consumption – cognitive functioning relationship: a cohort study”的研究证实,每周至少吃鱼一次的儿童,比很少吃鱼甚至不吃鱼的儿童,睡眠更好,且智商分数高出四分之一。【详细

上个月,发表在该杂志上的另一篇题为“Abundant fish protein inhibits α-synuclein amyloid formation”的论文又揭示了吃鱼与长期神经系统健康之间的关联。研究发现,多种鱼类中富含的名为Parvalbumin的蛋白质能够预防与帕金森病密切相关的某种蛋白质结构的形成。

作者们表示,由于其他的神经退行性疾病(包括阿尔茨海默症、ALS、亨廷顿舞蹈病)也都是由某些淀粉样蛋白结构干扰大脑引起的,因此,他们希望开展进一步的研究,看看是否与帕金森病相关的这一发现对其他神经退行性疾病也有影响。【详细

责编:风铃

参考资料:

Keep saying yes to fish twice a week for heart health

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  • Seafood Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association

    Since the 2002 American Heart Association scientific statement “Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease,” evidence from observational and experimental studies and from randomized controlled trials continues to emerge to further substantiate the beneficial effects of seafood long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. A recent American Heart Association science advisory addressed the specific effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events. This American Heart Association science advisory extends that review and offers further support to include n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from seafood consumption. Several potential mechanisms have been investigated, including antiarrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, hematologic, and endothelial, although for most, longer-term dietary trials of seafood are warranted to substantiate the benefit of seafood as a replacement for other important sources of macronutrients. The present science advisory reviews this evidence and makes a suggestion in the context of the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and in consideration of other constituents of seafood and the impact on sustainability. We conclude that 1 to 2 seafood meals per week be included to reduce the risk of congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and sudden cardiac death, especially when seafood replaces the intake of less healthy foods.

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