2篇论文证实!酸奶或有助于抑制慢性炎症
2018/05/20
生活中,我们常常听到一种观点,即酸奶有益健康。近日,由美国科学家发表的2篇论文证实,酸奶可能有助于抑制慢性炎症。据悉,该研究是调查酸奶对慢性炎症影响的最大的人类干预研究之一。
炎症可以是“好的”,也可以是“坏的”。因为,正常情况下,它是机体先天免疫系统(抵御疾病和损伤的第一道防线)的一部分,但如果炎症反应持续的时间过长,就会导致一种被称为慢性炎症的疾病(这种情况下,机体会攻击自我,对器官和系统造成破坏)。

先前,科学家们已发现,慢性炎症是导致炎症性肠病、关节炎和哮喘的一个因素;同时,它还与肥胖、代谢综合征、心血管疾病和其他慢性病有关。尽管包括阿司匹林、萘普生、氢化可的松和强的松在内的抗炎药物能够帮助减轻慢性炎症的影响,但每一种药物都有其自身的风险和副作用。因此,业界认为,需要为对抗慢性炎症找到安全、温和、长效的疗法。

20多年来,科学家们一直在研究将“乳制品”作为一种潜在的饮食疗法,但结果是“喜忧参半”的,并且还引发了关于乳制品促炎还是抗炎的科学争论。近期的一个“好消息”是,来自美国Wisconsin-Madison大学的研究表明,酸奶可能有助于抑制慢性炎症。


图片来源:The Journal of Nutrition(https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy046)

相关成果以2篇论文的形式发表。一篇以“Low-fat yogurt consumption reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and inhibits markers of endotoxin exposure in healthy premenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial”为题发表在British Journal of Nutrition上(2017年11月28日);一篇以“Premeal Low-Fat Yogurt Consumption Reduces Postprandial Inflammation and Markers of Endotoxin Exposure in Healthy Premenopausal Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial”为题发表在Journal of Nutrition(5月14日)。

研究探索了一种假说,即,酸奶可以通过改善肠道内衬(intestinal lining)的完整性来降低炎症完整性得到改善后,能够防止由肠道微生物产生的促炎分子进入血液中)。


图片来源:University of Wisconsin-Madison

领导这两项研究的Brad Bolling长期致力于调查食物在预防慢性疾病中的作用。在最新发表的研究中,Bolling等招募了120名绝经前的女性(一半肥胖,一半不肥胖)。一半参与者被要求每天吃12盎司的低脂酸奶,持续9周;对照组参与者被要求吃9个星期的非乳制品布丁。

研究期间,Bolling和他的团队从参与者那里采集了空腹血液样本,并评估了多年来科学家们用来测量内毒素暴露(endotoxin exposure)和炎症的生物标志物的分类。正如去年发表在British Journal of Nutrition上的论文所描述的那样,新研究也证实,吃酸奶的参与者某些关键生物标志物(如TNF-α)得到了显著改善。


Credit: Wikipedia

值得一提的是,该研究中,参与者还接受了高卡路里饮食的挑战,即参与者在吃完一份酸奶或一份非乳制品布丁后,接着吃一顿高脂肪、高碳水化合物的早餐。分析结果显示,酸奶不仅发挥了抗炎作用,还可通过促进餐后血糖水平的降低帮助肥胖参与者改善他们的葡萄糖代谢。

“饭前吃8盎司的低脂酸奶是改善餐后代谢的可行策略,可能有助于降低患心血管和代谢疾病的风险。”论文的第一作者Ruisong Pei说。

总结来说,Bolling认为,研究结果表明了持续食用酸奶可能具有普遍的抗炎作用。不过,他们的研究并没有鉴定出究竟是酸奶中的哪些化合物改变了与健康促进作用相关的生物标志物,以及它们是如何在体内发挥作用的。解决这些难题需要更多的研究。

责编:风铃

参考资料:

Study shows yogurt may dampen chronic inflammation linked to multiple diseases

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  • Low-fat yogurt consumption reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and inhibits markers of endotoxin exposure in healthy premenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial

    The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of low-fat dairy product consumption are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether low-fat yogurt reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in women. Premenopausal women (BMI 18·5–27 and 30–40 kg/m2) were randomised to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (yogurt non-obese (YN); yogurt obese (YO)) or 324 g of soya pudding (control non-obese; control obese (CO)) daily for 9 weeks (n 30/group). Fasting blood samples were analysed for IL-6, TNF-α/soluble TNF II (sTNF-RII), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, monocyte gene expression, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), IgM endotoxin-core antibody (IgM EndoCAb), and zonulin. BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also determined. After 9-week yogurt consumption, YO and YN had decreased TNF-α/sTNFR-RII. Yogurt consumption increased plasma IgM EndoCAb regardless of obesity status. sCD14 was not affected by diet, but LBP/sCD14 was lowered by yogurt consumption in both YN and YO. Yogurt intervention increased plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol in YO but not YN. YO peripheral blood mononuclear cells expression of NF-κB inhibitor α and transforming growth factor β1 increased relative to CO at 9 weeks. Other biomarkers were unchanged by diet. CO and YO gained approximately 0·9 kg in body weight. YO had 3·6 % lower diastolic blood pressure at week 3. Low-fat yogurt for 9 weeks reduced biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in premenopausal women compared with a non-dairy control food. This trial was registered as NCT01686204.

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  • Premeal Low-Fat Yogurt Consumption Reduces Postprandial Inflammation and Markers of Endotoxin Exposure in Healthy Premenopausal Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Background Metabolic endotoxemia is associated with obesity and contributes to postprandial inflammation. Objective We aimed to determine if low-fat yogurt consumption prevents postprandial inflammation and dysmetabolism in healthy women by inhibiting biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia. Methods Premenopausal women defined as obese and nonobese [body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) 30–40 and 18.5–27, respectively, n = 120] were randomly assigned to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (YN, yogurt nonobese; YO, yogurt obese) or 324 g of soy pudding (CN, control nonobese; CO, control obese) for 9 wk (n = 30/group). The intervention foods each supplied 330 kcal with 3 g fat, 66 g carbohydrate, and 4–6 g protein. At weeks 0 and 9, participants ingested 226 g of yogurt or 216 g of soy pudding before a meal providing 56–60 g fat, 82 g carbohydrate, and 28–30 g protein. Plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), LPS activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6), glucose, triglyceride, and insulin were measured hourly for 4 h to assess differences in postprandial responses between groups by 2-factor ANOVA. Results Premeal yogurt consumption prevented the postprandial decrease in sCD14 net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) by 72% in obese individuals at week 0 (P = 0.0323). YN and YO had ≥40% lower net iAUC of LBP-to-sCD14 ratio and plasma IL-6 concentration than CN and CO, respectively (P < 0.05). CO had postprandial hyperglycemia which was not evident in YO; in contrast YN had 57% less postprandial hypoglycemia than did CN (P-interaction = 0.0013). After 9 wk of yogurt consumption, ΔAUC of LBP-to-sCD14 ratios of YO and YN were less than half of those of the control groups (P = 0.0093). Conclusions Yogurt consumption improved postprandial metabolism and biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia in healthy premenopausal women. Premeal yogurt consumption is a feasible strategy to inhibit postprandial dysmetabolism and thus may reduce cardiometabolic risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01686204.

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