重要证据!调节肠道微生物或降低患心脏病风险
2018/05/12
先前有研究发现,在小鼠中,拥有“好的肠道微生物”与患心脏病风险降低有关。现在,发表在European Heart Journal杂志上的一项新成果证实,在人类中,这一关联也同样存在!
大多数人都知道,心脏病的危险因素包括高血压、高胆固醇和吸烟,但这些因素并不能很好地用于预测心脏病。目前,测定动脉硬化(hardening of the arteries)是评估心脏病发作或中风风险的一种方式,但动脉僵硬度(arterial stiffness)与高胆固醇或吸烟并无显著关联,但与炎症密切相关。

炎症是我们的身体对伤害(injury)做出的正常反应,但当它过高时,就会导致许多疾病,如关节炎、湿疹。最近,几项大型临床研究表明,炎症是心脏病和动脉硬化发展的关键因素。在其中一项研究中,给参与者服用一种减少炎症的药物降低了已有过一次心脏病发作的人(people who had already had one heart attack)的心脏病发作次数,以及他们的患癌风险。


Credit: metamorworks/Shutterstock.com

那么,我们怎样才能不用昂贵的药物来减轻炎症呢?避免肥胖和吸烟是一个好的开始,此外,生活在我们肠道中的有益细菌也会有帮助。

先前已有大量的研究证实,肠道微生物似乎对预防由炎症造成的多种疾病(如银屑病性关节炎、糖尿病、炎性肠病等)非常重要。在所有这些疾病中,健康的肠道细菌的多样性是缺乏的。


图片来源:European Heart Journal( https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy226)

在5月9日发表的这篇题为“Gut microbial diversity is associated with lower arterial stiffness in women”的论文中,英国伦敦国王学院圣托马斯医院的研究人员发现,动脉硬化程度更高的女性(简称“前者”)肠道内的微生物多样性更低,而动脉更健康的女性(简称“后者”)肠道内的微生物多样性更高。不仅如此,科学家们还在后者的血液中观察到了更高水平的、由微生物产生的某些有益物质。其中,一种叫做indoleproprionic acid的物质先前已被证明能够用于预测较低的患糖尿病风险。

该研究还证实,几乎10%的动脉硬化可由肠道微生物及其产生的物质来解释。相比之下,胆固醇水平、吸烟、糖尿病和中等肥胖能解释的比例不到2%。

作者们表示,这是非常令人兴奋的,因为不像遗传风险,肠道内的微生物及其产生的物质是可以被改变的。吃“好的细菌”是影响肠道微生物的一种方法。这可以通过吃益生菌食物或补充剂以及粪便移植来实现。

此前已证实 ,将来自健康供者的肠道微生物移植给糖尿病患者几周后,患者的病情得到了改善,同时肠道内的微生物也发生了变化。科学家们认为,这种类型的研究或许也可以适用于心脏病和其他疾病。

另一种调节肠道微生物的方法是改变饮食。当我们吃富含omega-3(在鱼油中发现的物质)或膳食纤维的食物时,肠道中的有益细菌会长得更好。

“肠道微生物与我们的健康之间存在关联是好消息,因为我们可以做一些事情来增加它们的多样性。”作者们总结道。

责编:悠然

参考资料:

Gut microbes may affect heart disease risk – first study in humans

所有文章仅代表作者观点,不代表本站立场。如若转载请联系原作者。
查看更多
  • Gut microbial diversity is associated with lower arterial stiffness in women

    Aims The gut microbiome influences metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation and is therapeutically modifiable. Arterial stiffness is poorly correlated with most traditional risk factors. Our aim was to examine whether gut microbial composition is associated with arterial stiffness. Methods and results We assessed the correlation between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and gut microbiome composition in 617 middle-aged women from the TwinsUK cohort with concurrent serum metabolomics data. Pulse wave velocity was negatively correlated with gut microbiome alpha diversity (Shannon index, Beta(SE)= −0.25(0.07), P = 1 × 10−4) after adjustment for covariates. We identified seven operational taxonomic units associated with PWV after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing—two belonging to the Ruminococcaceae family. Associations between microbe abundances, microbe diversity, and PWV remained significant after adjustment for levels of gut-derived metabolites (indolepropionate, trimethylamine oxide, and phenylacetylglutamine). We linearly combined the PWV-associated gut microbiome-derived variables and found that microbiome factors explained 8.3% (95% confidence interval 4.3–12.4%) of the variance in PWV. A formal mediation analysis revealed that only a small proportion (5.51%) of the total effect of the gut microbiome on PWV was mediated by insulin resistance and visceral fat, c-reactive protein, and cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting for age, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure. Conclusions Gut microbiome diversity is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in women. The effect of gut microbiome composition on PWV is only minimally mediated by MetS. This first human observation linking the gut microbiome to arterial stiffness suggests that targeting the microbiome may be a way to treat arterial ageing.

    展开 收起
发表评论 我在frontend\modules\comment\widgets\views\文件夹下面 test