新发现!自闭症儿童同样会拥有想象的朋友
2018/05/06
小孩子的世界很奇妙,他们会与喜欢的洋娃娃对话,甚至会凭空创造出一个好朋友。这一现象被称为假想玩伴(imaginary companion,IC)。科学家们认为,这一想象力有利于孩子掌握基本的社交技能。而自闭症儿童曾被认为缺乏这一能力,现在,最新一篇研究驳斥了过去的观点。


图片来源:Pixabay

这一最新研究发表在《Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders》期刊,由哈德斯菲尔德大学的科学家们完成。他们证实,自闭症儿童同样会拥有想象中的朋友,并主动与它们玩耍。

自闭症患儿被称为“住在星星上的孩子”,从婴儿时期开始他们对外界的感知就不同于同龄正常儿童。关于自闭症的病因一直是医学界的未解之谜。


doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3540-y

现在,心理学家Paige Davis带领团队发现新的转机。他们的关注点在于“假想玩伴”,通过招募正常儿童以及自闭症儿童的父母,让他们完成问卷调查,结果发现:相比于正常儿童拥有假想朋友的比例(42%),只有16.2%的自闭症儿童会有想象的好朋友。而且,他们会更倾向于与毛绒玩具、玩偶玩耍。


New research shows that children with autism are able to create imaginary friends. Credit: University of Huddersfield

虽然两类儿童在假想朋友上存在数量上的差异,但是自闭症儿童一旦拥有假想朋友,互动的程度与正常儿童无异。

最新文章还列举一些自闭症儿童的假想朋友,包括幽灵泡泡(Ghosty Bubble,睡在儿童旁边、不可见的泡泡人)、Mikey(躲在下水道里的隐形忍者)和Pretend Ada(自闭症儿童在学校里的假想朋友)。

研究人员发现,一些被诊断患有自闭症的儿童甚至于会自发地创造出一个假想朋友。这一发现颠覆过去关于“自闭症儿童无法拥有正常儿童的想象力”的观点。

Davis认为,如果自闭症儿童能够表现出正常儿童对假想玩伴的社交需求,这将对未来的干预产生影响,由此可以获得新的治疗手段。

责编:悠然

参考资料:

New research shows that children with autism are able to create imaginary friends

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  • Imaginary Companions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    One of the deficits observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is impaired imaginative play. One form of imaginative play common in many typically developing (TD) children is having an imaginary companion (IC). The occurrence of ICs has not been investigated extensively in children with ASD. We examined differences in parent report of IC between TD and ASD populations in 215 (111 with ASD) gender-matched children aged between 2 and 8 years. Findings indicate that significantly fewer children with ASD created ICs, although there were many between-group similarities in IC forms and functions. Results are discussed in terms of qualitative differences in play, social attributions, and how children with ASD conceptualize their ICs’ minds.

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