有意思!运动降低食欲,竟与大脑“温度计”有关
2018/05/01
运动可以控制食欲?近期,《PLOS Biology》期刊上一篇文章解析了背后的原因:剧烈运动可以点燃小鼠大脑中的“温度计”,从而降低食欲。


图片来源:Pixabay

运动的好处不言而喻:长期锻炼可以保持年轻、延缓衰老、降低死亡风险、改变肠道菌群、有益大脑健康……现在,来自于Albert Einstein医学院的科学家们又给出一份证据:运动可以让小鼠大脑温度上升,从而抑制食欲!

“这意味着,机体体温可以作为一种生物信号(类似于荷尔蒙和营养物质),调控饮食行为。” 文章通讯作者、Albert Einstein医学院的神经学家Young-Hwan Jo表示道。


doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2004399

对于人类而言,锻炼后短时间内可以消除饥饿感。在小鼠身上,同样如此。Young-Hwan Jo团队让小鼠在跑步机上运动40分钟后发现,小鼠大脑温度上升,而且在随后的一个小时内吃的更少。为了解这一效应的原因,研究团队深入研究下丘脑,因为它是调控饮食行为的主要区域。

结果显示,小鼠的下丘脑特别是弓状核(ARC)区域内的神经细胞会表达一种热敏感受体TRPV1。当上调TRPV1可以抑制小鼠的食欲。而且,干扰这一受体会破坏运动对于食欲的抑制作用。

研究人员总结道,下丘脑温度的升高可以激活神经元的温度敏感受体,从而产生抑制食欲的效果。

责编:悠然

参考资料:

Exercise Warms the Brain, Causing Mice to Eat Less

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  • Activation of temperature-sensitive TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons reduces food intake

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) respond to numerous hormonal and neural signals, resulting in changes in food intake. Here, we demonstrate that ARC POMC neurons express capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1)-like receptors. To show expression of TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons, we use single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, TRPV1 knock-out (KO), and TRPV1-Cre knock-in mice. A small elevation of temperature in the physiological range is enough to depolarize ARC POMC neurons. This depolarization is blocked by the TRPV1 receptor antagonist and by Trpv1 gene knockdown. Capsaicin-induced activation reduces food intake that is abolished by a melanocortin receptor antagonist. To selectively stimulate TRPV1-like receptor-expressing ARC POMC neurons in the ARC, we generate an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) carrying a Cre-dependent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)–enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) expression cassette under the control of the two neuronal POMC enhancers (nPEs). Optogenetic stimulation of TRPV1-like receptor-expressing POMC neurons decreases food intake. Hypothalamic temperature is rapidly elevated and reaches to approximately 39 °C during treadmill running. This elevation is associated with a reduction in food intake. Knockdown of the Trpv1 gene exclusively in ARC POMC neurons blocks the feeding inhibition produced by increased hypothalamic temperature. Taken together, our findings identify a melanocortinergic circuit that links acute elevations in hypothalamic temperature with acute reductions in food intake.

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