新证据!除了“抗癌”,“吃坚果”还能降低患房颤风险
2018/04/23
继有研究证实“吃坚果”能够改善结肠癌生存以及降低患心血管疾病风险后,一项最新的成果又表明,每周吃几份坚果可能有助于降低患心房颤动(atrial fibrillation)以及心力衰竭的风险。


图片来源:Heart(http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312819)

4月16日,这项成果以“Nut consumption and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases”为题发表在BMJ子刊Heart杂志上。研究中,科学家们从61,000多名瑞典人(年龄在45-83岁之间)中获取了完整的食物频率问卷(Food Frequency Questionnaire)调查结果和生活方式信息。参与者的心血管健康状况被追踪17年到2014年年底)或被追踪到死亡为止。

分析结果显示,“吃坚果的人”比“饮食中不含坚果的人”倾向于有更健康的生活方式以及更好的教育。他们不太可能吸烟或有高血压病史。同时,吃坚果的人往往更瘦,身体更活跃,喝更多的酒以及吃更多的水果和蔬菜。

在整个调查期间,共出现了4983例心脏病发作(917例是致命的)、3160例心力衰竭、7550例心房颤动、972例主动脉瓣狭窄、983例腹主动脉瘤、3782例因血凝块引发的中风(stroke caused by a blood clot)以及543例因脑出血引发的中风。


图片来源:16sucai

在考虑了年龄和性别因素后,研究人员发现,坚果摄入与心脏病发作以及患心力衰竭、心房颤动和腹主动脉瘤的风险降低有关;然而,当考虑更多潜在的影响因素包括生活方式、饮食、糖尿病和家族史)后,他们只观察到了坚果摄入与心房颤动和心力衰竭之间的关联。

具体来说,分析显示,饮食中包含坚果的频率越高,患心房颤动的风险就越低:1个月吃1-3次坚果与患心房颤动风险降低3%有关;1周吃1次或2次坚果与患心房颤动风险降低12%有关;1周吃≥3次坚果与患心房颤动风险降低18%有关。

对心力衰竭来说,每周中度(moderate)坚果摄入与患心力衰竭风险降低20%有关。

不过,由于这是一项观察性研究,因此,没有建立“吃坚果与患心房颤动或心力衰竭风险降低”之间的因果关系。但该研究也有它的优势,包括庞大的样本规模以及监测期间报告的大量心血管疾病病例。

作者们强调,坚果是健康脂肪、矿物质和抗氧化剂的丰富来源,这些成分都可能有助心血管健康。

责编:风铃

参考资料:

Regular nut intake linked to lower risk of heart rhythm irregularity (atrial fibrillation)

“坚果抗癌”新证据!每周吃两份坚果,改善结肠癌生存

坚果为何能抗癌?这项研究有了新答案!

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  • Nut consumption and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases

    Background Nut consumption has been found to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, but the association between nut consumption and incidence of specific cardiovascular diseases is unclear. We examined the association between nut consumption and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases. Methods This prospective study included 61 364 Swedish adults who had completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire and were followed up for 17 years through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Death Registers. Results Nut consumption was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and abdominal aortic aneurysm in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analysis. However, adjustment for multiple risk factors attenuated these associations and only a linear, dose–response, association with atrial fibrillation (ptrend=0.004) and a non-linear association (pnon-linearity=0.003) with heart failure remained. Compared with no consumption of nuts, the multivariable HRs (95% CI) of atrial fibrillation across categories of nut consumption were 0.97 (0.93 to 1.02) for 1–3 times/month, 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99) for 1–2 times/week and 0.82 (0.68 to 0.99) for ≥3 times/week. For heart failure, the corresponding HRs (95% CI) were 0.87 (0.80 to 0.94), 0.80 (0.67 to 0.97) and 0.98 (0.76 to 1.27). Nut consumption was not associated with risk of aortic valve stenosis, ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage. Conclusions These findings suggest that nut consumption or factors associated with this nutritional behaviour may play a role in reducing the risk of atrial fibrillation and possibly heart failure.

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