重要证据!人体试验表明:节食或能延缓衰老
2018/04/01
热量限制是一种对“改善健康和寿命延长”有潜在益处的饮食干预手段。近日,一项在人类中进行的研究证实,两年间热量摄入减少15%,能减缓衰老和新陈代谢,以及防止与年龄相关的疾病。


图片来源:Cell Metabolism(DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2018.02.019)

这项题为“Metabolic Slowing and Reduced Oxidative Damage with Sustained Caloric Restriction Support the Rate of Living and Oxidative Damage Theories of Aging”的成果于3月22日发表在Cell Metabolism杂志上。研究发现,热量限制降低了全身氧化应激。而氧化应激水平已被证实与阿尔茨海默症、帕金森病、癌症、糖尿病等疾病有关。

具体来说,这项名为CALERIE的研究,全称为Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy,即,降低能量摄入长期效应的综合评估。它是在非肥胖人群中测试热量限制代谢影响的首个随机对照试验。


图片来源:Cell Metabolism

研究报告了来自53位健康的非肥胖男性和女性(年龄在21-50岁之间)的试验结果。其中,34人进行了为期两年的热量限制饮食(calorie restriction diet ),热量摄入减少了15%。其他19人为对照组。

调查结果显示,热量限制组的参与者平均减掉了8.7千克。同时,该组参与者表现出了持续的代谢减缓伴随着氧化应激的降低。此外,他们也没有被观察到贫血、过度骨质流失、月经紊乱等不良反应。

论文的第一作者兼通讯作者Leanne M. Redman表示,许多因素能够影响新陈代谢,如抗氧化机制、饮食因素等。目前的理论认为,较慢的新陈代谢对健康的衰老最有益。

虽然这一研究的参与者数量相对较少,且持续时间相对人的寿命较短,但参与者的衰老生物标志物都得到了改善。Redman说:“我们发现,即使是已经健康和苗条的人,也可以从‘热量限制’中获益。”

接下来,科学家们将建立与人类衰老相关的更强大的标志物,并调查热量限制联合抗氧化食物或物质(如白藜芦醇)的影响。

参考资料:

Calorie restriction trial in humans suggests benefits for age-related disease

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  • Metabolic Slowing and Reduced Oxidative Damage with Sustained Caloric Restriction Support the Rate of Living and Oxidative Damage Theories of Aging

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention with potential benefits for healthspan improvement and lifespan extension. In 53 (34 CR and 19 control) non-obese adults, we tested the hypothesis that energy expenditure (EE) and its endocrine mediators are reduced with a CR diet over 2 years. Approximately 15% CR was achieved over 2 years, resulting in an average 8.7 kg weight loss, whereas controls gained 1.8 kg. In the CR group, EE measured over 24 hr or during sleep was approximately 80–120 kcal/day lower than expected on the basis of weight loss, indicating sustained metabolic adaptation over 2 years. This metabolic adaptation was accompanied by significantly reduced thyroid axis activity and reactive oxygen species (F2-isoprostane) production. Findings from this 2-year CR trial in healthy, non-obese humans provide new evidence of persistent metabolic slowing accompanied by reduced oxidative stress, which supports the rate of living and oxidative damage theories of mammalian aging.

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