2篇论文证实!长期运动,延缓衰老
2018/03/24
关于运动的好处,又有新力证了。近日,来自英国伯明翰大学和伦敦国王学院的研究人员发现,坚持运动(staying active)能保持身体年轻和健康。


图片来源:Aging Cel(DOI: 10.1111/acel.12735)

3月8日,这项研究成果以2篇论文论文一:Properties of the vastus lateralis muscle in relation to age and physiological function in master cyclists aged 55–79 years;论文二:Major features of immunesenescence, including reduced thymic output, are ameliorated by high levels of physical activity in adulthood)的形式发表在Aging Cell杂志上。


图片来源:Aging Cel(DOI: 10.1111/acel.12750)

该研究的出发点是,评估在成年后的大部分时间都坚持锻炼的老年人的健康,以调查是否长期运动能够延缓衰老。

研究招募了125名年龄在55岁至79岁之间的业余自行车手(amateur cyclists),其中,84人为男性,41人为女性。男性必须能够在6.5小时内骑100公里,而女性必须能够在5.5小时内骑60公里。此外,研究排除了吸烟者、酗酒者以及有高血压或其他健康状况的人。

参与者在实验室中进行了一系列的测试,并与一组不参加定期体育活动的成年人进行了比较。

结果显示,那些定期锻炼的人没有发生肌肉质量和力量的丧失。自行车手的身体脂肪或胆固醇水平也没有随着年龄增长而增加,且男性的睾丸素也保持在很高的水平,这表明他们可能避免了大多数男性的更年期。


Study revealed that the benefits of exercise extend beyond muscle as the cyclists had an immune system that had not aged(图片参考自:伯明翰大学)

更令人惊讶的是,这项研究还发现,运动的好处远远超过对肌肉的影响,因为,自行车手的免疫系统似乎也没有老化。

研究人员介绍称,胸腺是负责产生T细胞(一种免疫细胞)的器官,它从20岁时开始萎缩,产生的T细胞变少。然而,在这项研究中,自行车手的胸腺产生的T细胞与年轻人的胸腺一样多。

调查结果还显示,在65岁以上的人中,只有不到一半的人做了足够多的运动来保持健康,超过半数65岁以上的人至少患有两种疾病。

论文二的通讯作者、伯明翰大学的Janet Lord教授说:“基于这一研究,现在,我们有强有力的证据表明,鼓励人们在一生中坚持定期锻炼是解决‘活得更长,但并不健康’这一问题的可行办法。”

伦敦国王学院的名誉教授Norman Lazarus建议人们在适合的环境中,找一种喜欢的运动,并养成体育锻炼的习惯。他说:“如此坚持下去,你将在晚年获得回报——享受独立而丰富的老年生活。”

参考资料:

A lifetime of regular exercise slows down aging, study finds

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  • Major features of immunesenescence, including reduced thymic output, are ameliorated by high levels of physical activity in adulthood

    It is widely accepted that aging is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system including thymic atrophy and increased frequency of senescent T cells, leading to immune compromise. However, physical activity, which influences immunity but declines dramatically with age, is not considered in this literature. We assessed immune profiles in 125 adults (55–79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise. The frequency of naïve T cells and recent thymic emigrants (RTE) were both higher in cyclists compared with inactive elders, and RTE frequency in cyclists was no different to young adults. Compared with their less active counterparts, the cyclists had significantly higher serum levels of the thymoprotective cytokine IL-7 and lower IL-6, which promotes thymic atrophy. Cyclists also showed additional evidence of reduced immunesenescence, namely lower Th17 polarization and higher B regulatory cell frequency than inactive elders. Physical activity did not protect against all aspects of immunesenescence: CD28−veCD57+ve senescent CD8 T-cell frequency did not differ between cyclists and inactive elders. We conclude that many features of immunesenescence may be driven by reduced physical activity with age.

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  • Properties of the vastus lateralis muscle in relation to age and physiological function in master cyclists aged 55–79 years

    In this study, results are reported from the analyses of vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples obtained from a subset (n = 90) of 125 previously phenotyped, highly active male and female cyclists aged 55–79 years in regard to age. We then subsequently attempted to uncover associations between the findings in muscle and in vivo physiological functions. Muscle fibre type and composition (ATPase histochemistry), size (morphometry), capillary density (immunohistochemistry) and mitochondrial protein content (Western blot) in relation to age were determined in the biopsy specimens. Aside from an age-related change in capillary density in males (r = −.299; p = .02), no other parameter measured in the muscle samples showed an association with age. However, in males type I fibres and capillarity (p < .05) were significantly associated with training volume, maximal oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake kinetics and ventilatory threshold. In females, the only association observed was between capillarity and training volume (p < .05). In males, both type II fibre proportion and area (p < .05) were associated with peak power during sprint cycling and with maximal rate of torque development during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Mitochondrial protein content was not associated with any cardiorespiratory parameter in either males or females (p > .05). We conclude in this highly active cohort, selected to mitigate most of the effects of inactivity, that there is little evidence of age-related changes in the properties of VL muscle across the age range studied. By contrast, some of these muscle characteristics were correlated with in vivo physiological indices.

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