意外!压抑情绪,可以减轻负面记忆
2018/03/15
“控制消极情绪可以减轻糟糕的记忆”——这是《Neuropsychologia》期刊一篇文章的最新结论。科学家们希望,这一策略有望为治疗抑郁症提供新的线索。


Psychology professor Sanda Dolcos and graduate student Yuta Katsumi explore how suppressing negative emotions affects brain function and memory. Credit: L. Brian Stauffer

“最初,我们是希望找到一种帮助抑郁症患者的替代疗法。”美国心理学教授Sanda Dolcos带领学生Yuta Katsumi完成了这一研究。

日常生活中,抑郁症患者的家人、朋友常常劝慰他们“振作起来、控制自己的情绪”,Sanda Dolcos教授团队好奇,有意识或者无意识地压抑情感是否会影响抑郁症?


doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.02.010

为了找到答案,Sanda Dolcos团队招募了17名受试对象,在他们完成图像评估任务中利用功能性核磁共振成像监控大脑活动。同时,他们设置了17个人的对照组(进行相同的任务,但是没有MRI检测)。

他们要求参与者对180张消极、中性的照片进行打分、排序。随后,他们重复这一任务,不同的是,其中一部分人被要求压抑自己因为照片而产生的负面情绪,而另一部分人会在任务之后无意地快速调控情绪。

一周后,无论是有意识还是无意识控制负面情绪,都可以减轻参与者们对于消极图像的记忆。但是,只有被明确要求抑制负面情绪的人,在观看消极照片时,才会感到不那么消极。

核磁共振成像数据显示,有意识的抑制负面情绪可以减少大脑杏仁核(产生、识别和调控情绪的关键区域)的活性。但是,这两种抑制情绪的方式都会减少大脑中负责“编码”情绪记忆的神经网络。这或许可以解释“抑制情绪可以减少参与者们对于消极照片的记忆”的现象。

“患有抑郁症或者其他情绪障碍的人往往很难与负面记忆保持距离。” Yuta Katsumi表示,“如果,我们能够帮助他们减少甚至于忘记消极的记忆,或许可以帮助他们在积极的事情上付诸更多的精力。”

这些结果表明,抑制情绪可以减少负面记忆。” Yuta Katsumi强调道,“但是调控情绪需要付出努力。”

参考资料:

Emotional suppression reduces memory of negative events

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  • Suppress to feel and remember less: Neural correlates of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory

    Available evidence suggests that emotion regulation can modulate both immediate (emotional experience) and long-term (episodic memory) effects of emotion, and that both explicit and implicit forms may be effective. However, neural mechanisms by which explicit and implicit emotional suppression affect these phenomena remain unclear, particularly regarding their effects on memory. In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants’ memory for the images was tested one week later. Behaviorally, explicit suppression reduced emotional ratings of negative images, whereas both explicit and implicit suppression reduced subsequent memory. At the neural level, the engagement of explicit suppression was uniquely associated with decreased activity in the amygdala (AMY), during emotional ratings, and in the AMY and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), during successful encoding. Although both explicit and implicit suppression diminished functional connectivity between these regions and the hippocampus (HC) linked to successful encoding, explicit suppression was uniquely associated with interference with AMY-HC interactions, which no longer predicted subsequent memory for the explicitly-suppressed items. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the common and dissociable mechanisms of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory, and suggest their impact on both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms involved in emotion-cognition interactions.

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