“名字盲”怪左脑,“脸盲”怪右脑
2018/01/27
在我们日常生活中,有些人是“名字盲”,有些人是“脸盲”,这又是什么原因?近期,曼彻斯特大学的一项研究首次证明,大脑的两面在视觉和语言的语义记忆中起着重要的作用,且各有侧重。

语义记忆是指我们对单词、对象、人和情感含义的知识。现在越来越多的证据表明,语义记忆是由大脑的一个大的分布式网络支持的,包括两边前颞叶(ATLs)。但是两边ATLs对语义贡献的性质和程度还不清楚,为此,曼彻斯特大学的心理学家进行了首个评估大脑中左右脑处理语义记忆的相似性和差异性的研究。

Grace Rice博士和Matthew Lambon Ralph教授团队领导了这项研究,在14个月的时间里,他们从索尔福德皇家医院和利物浦沃尔顿神经病学中心,招募了40名参试者。这些参试者为了治疗长期存在的癫痫症(由单侧海马硬化引起的),做了大脑的单侧前颞叶切除。其中,20名参试者切除了右前颞叶,20名参试者切除了左前颞叶。手术后,这些参试者癫痫发作少,并且能够重新回到工作中,而且还学习了驾驶技术。


DOI.org/10.1093/cercor/bhx362

上述两组参试者在表达和接受语言的语义任务、单词和物体识别、著名面孔的命名和识别、面部表情和情感方面的任务中都表现出缺陷。

研究人员再将测试结果与对照组20个没有任何神经问题的参试者进行了比较。结果发现,在需要命名或书面获取语义信息的任务中,左侧切除的参试者表现较弱;而右侧切除的参试者则在识别面孔的任务中表现较弱。

Grace Rice博士表示,“我们的研究为这一特定类型的癫痫手术对行为的影响提供了一个重要的见解,同时也有助于我们了解大脑记忆的存储位置。”

参考资料

Can't remember a name? Blame the left side of your brain

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