有趣!玩超级马里奥可帮助预防老年痴呆
2017/12/27
玩游戏有益大脑健康,或是让大脑受损,这个答案一直没有定论。但最近发表在《PLOS ONE》期刊上一项研究给出了一个方向:例如超级马里奥这样的3D平台视频游戏,玩2个月,可以增加海马体灰质,并帮助预防痴呆。


这项研究由蒙特利尔大学的精神学副教授Greg West所领导。

我们知道,海马体是大脑中最重要的部分,能帮助人们确定自己的位置(被称为空间记忆)和记住过去的经历(情景记忆)。另外,3D平台视频游戏由于需要使用空间记忆来构建游戏环境的认知地图,因而需要依赖海马体的学习。

研究人员发现,玩了2个月3D平台视频游戏(即超级马里奥64)的年轻人,其海马体灰质增加,且空间和情景记忆能力有所增强。


Greg West教授想进一步了解,年轻人的这样现象是否会在老年人身上复制。于是,他们招募了55-75岁的老年人,测试超级马里奥64对他们海马体、小脑和背外侧前额叶皮层(DLPFC)灰质的影响。


研究人员把受试者随机分为三组。第一组,游戏组(VID)。第二组,音乐组(MUS),第三组,对照组(CON)。

6个月后,研究发现,只有VID训练组的受试者,海马体内灰质是显著增加的(与在年轻成年人中观察的结果一致);MUS训练组的受试者DLPFC的增加,而VID和MUS训练都导致了小脑的增长。相反,CON训练组的受试者,海马体、小脑和DLPFC都有显著的灰质减少。

这也是第一次通过研究表明,电子游戏训练可以对老年人的海马记忆系统产生积极的影响。Greg West教授表示,3D平台视频游戏训练有望帮助预防老年痴呆症等退化性疾病。

参考资料

Super Mario could help prevent dementia, scientists say

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  • Playing Super Mario 64 increases hippocampal grey matter in older adults

    Maintaining grey matter within the hippocampus is important for healthy cognition. Playing 3D-platform video games has previously been shown to promote grey matter in the hippocampus in younger adults. In the current study, we tested the impact of 3D-platform video game training (i.e., Super Mario 64) on grey matter in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of older adults. Older adults who were 55 to 75 years of age were randomized into three groups. The video game experimental group (VID; n = 8) engaged in a 3D-platform video game training over a period of 6 months. Additionally, an active control group took a series of self-directed, computerized music (piano) lessons (MUS; n = 12), while a no-contact control group did not engage in any intervention (CON; n = 13). After training, a within-subject increase in grey matter within the hippocampus was significant only in the VID training group, replicating results observed in younger adults. Active control MUS training did, however, lead to a within-subject increase in the DLPFC, while both the VID and MUS training produced growth in the cerebellum. In contrast, the CON group displayed significant grey matter loss in the hippocampus, cerebellum and the DLPFC.

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