注意啦!吃早餐要在9:30前!晚了会影响生物钟基因表达
2017/12/04
生物钟是自然界所有生物的生命活动都存在节律现象。2017年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖就颁给了因发现控制昼夜节律机制的科学家。近期,这一领域又有新进展,研究人员发现吃早餐过晚,会影响 “生物钟基因”的表达。


我们知道,不规律的用餐习惯,比如说不吃早餐,往往与肥胖、2型糖尿病、高血压和心血管疾病等有关。但是关于进食时间对身体内部时钟的确切影响一直不太清楚。

特拉维夫大学(Tel Aviv University,TAU)的一项新研究指出,早餐对调节餐后血糖和胰岛素反应的“生物钟基因”的影响。

TAU的这项研究是由萨克勒医学院和沃尔夫森医疗中心糖尿病组Daniela Jakubowicz教授所领导,研究结果发表在《Diabetes Care》杂志上。

Jakubowicz教授表示,“我们的研究表明,吃早餐可以触发生物钟基因表达,从而改善血糖控制。生物钟基因不仅调节葡萄糖代谢的昼夜变化,还能调节我们的体重、血压、内皮功能和动脉粥样硬化。”

适当的用餐时间,比如说在9:30前,可能会改善身体的整个新陈代谢,促进体重减轻,延缓与2型糖尿病和其他与年龄相关的并发症。

在这项研究中,18名健康志愿者和18名患有糖尿病的肥胖志愿者参加了两天测试,一天包含早餐和午餐,一天只有午餐。研究人员对参与者进行了血液测试,以测量他们的餐后生物钟基因表达、血浆葡萄糖、胰岛素等情况。

Jakubowicz教授介绍道,在健康个体和糖尿病患者中,早餐摄入能显著改善与更有效的减肥相关的特定基因的表达,并在午餐后改善了葡萄糖和胰岛素水平。

相比之下,不吃早餐,减肥相关的生物种基因表达下降,导致了高血糖以及当天胰岛素反应差。这也表明,不吃早餐,即使没有暴饮暴食,也会增加体重。

Jakubowicz教授表示,“我们能在短短的四个小时内改变基因表达,这一点非常让人印象深刻。”

研究人员目前正在进行一项长期研究,比较不同膳食时间安排对人体生物钟基因表达、葡萄糖平衡和体重减轻的影响。

参考资料

Skipping breakfast disrupts 'clock genes' that regulate body weight

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  • Influences of Breakfast on Clock Gene Expression and Postprandial Glycemia in Healthy Individuals and Individuals With Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OBJECTIVE The circadian clock regulates glucose metabolism by mediating the activity of metabolic enzymes, hormones, and transport systems. Breakfast skipping and night eating have been associated with high HbA1c and postprandial hyperglycemia after lunch and dinner. Our aim was to explore the acute effect of breakfast consumption or omission on glucose homeostasis and clock gene expression in healthy individuals and individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a crossover design, 18 healthy volunteers and 18 volunteers with 14.5 ± 1.5 years diabetes, BMI 30.7 ± 1.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 7.6 ± 0.1% (59.6 ± 0.8 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned to a test day with breakfast and lunch (YesB) and a test day with only lunch (NoB). Postprandial clock and clock-controlled gene expression, plasma glucose, insulin, intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (iGLP-1), and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) plasma activity were assessed after breakfast and lunch. RESULTS In healthy individuals, the expression level of Per1, Cry1, Rorα, and Sirt1 was lower (P < 0.05) but Clock was higher (P < 0.05) after breakfast. In contrast, in individuals with type 2 diabetes, Per1, Per2, and Sirt1 only slightly, but significantly, decreased and Rorα increased (P < 0.05) after breakfast. In healthy individuals, the expression level of Bmal1, Rorα, and Sirt1 was higher (P < 0.05) after lunch on YesB day, whereas the other clock genes remained unchanged. In individuals with type 2 diabetes, Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Rev-erbα, and Ampk increased (P < 0.05) after lunch on the YesB day. Omission of breakfast altered clock and metabolic gene expression in both healthy and individuals with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Breakfast consumption acutely affects clock and clock-controlled gene expression leading to normal oscillation. Breakfast skipping adversely affects clock and clock-controlled gene expression and is correlated with increased postprandial glycemic response in both healthy individuals and individuals with diabetes.

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