“咖啡控”的好消息!每天喝3-4杯或有益健康长寿
2017/11/28
最新发表在BMJ上的一篇论文给“咖啡控”带来了一项好消息。该研究称,与不喝咖啡相比,适度饮用咖啡是安全的,且每天喝3-4杯可能对健康有益,与更长的寿命有关。


Three or 4 cups a day confers greatest benefit, except in pregnancy and for women at risk of fracture(Credit: © Romolo Tavani / Fotolia)

论文中,科学家们收集了来自超过200项研究的证据,结果发现,与不喝咖啡相比,每天喝3-4杯咖啡与死亡风险降低和患心脏病风险降低有关;同时,喝咖啡也与患某些癌症(前列腺癌、子宫内膜癌、皮肤癌和肝癌)、糖尿病、肝病(如肝硬化)、胆结石、痛风以及痴呆的风险降低有关。


图片来源:BMJ

特殊人群

不过,该研究也证实,怀孕期间喝太多咖啡可能是有害的。英国国家医疗服务体系(NHS)推荐孕妇每天摄入不超过200 mg咖啡因(两杯速溶咖啡),因为,摄入太多咖啡因会增加流产的风险。同时,该研究还表明,具有骨折风险的女性也应该少喝咖啡。


图片来源:BBC

适量摄入

研究称,对其他成年人来说,适量的咖啡因摄入相当于每天400毫克或更少(3-4杯咖啡)。

那么,不同的饮品中究竟含有多少咖啡因呢?BBC在相关的报道中给出了一份对应的表单:

一杯过滤式咖啡(filter coffee):140mg

一杯速溶咖啡:100mg

一杯茶:75mg

一罐可乐:40mg

一罐250ml的能量饮料(energy drink):高达80mg

该报道还指出,研究者们认为,喝咖啡的人应该坚持“健康地喝咖啡”,即,避免额外吃糖、牛奶、奶油,或者高脂肪零食等。


图片来源:GETTY IMAGES

作者呼吁

值得一提的是,由于被这篇新论文纳入的研究主要使用的是观察性数据,因此,没有确定“喝咖啡与健康益处”因果关系的明确结论。不过,该研究结果支持了近期与咖啡摄入有关的其它综述和研究。

作者们认为,除了孕妇和骨折风险增加的女性,喝咖啡对其他人似乎是安全的。他们呼吁开展关于咖啡摄入量的严格临床试验,以调查是否喝咖啡与健康益处之间的关联存在因果关系。

其他证据

近年来,越来越越多的研究表明,喝咖啡不仅能提神醒脑,还与多种健康益处相关。今年9月,在《除了对抗痴呆、降低癌症风险和死亡率,咖啡还能延缓糖尿病》一文中,探索君曾汇总过多篇相关论文。【详细


Compared to people who didn’t drink coffee, each cup of coffee a person drank resulted in a 7% lower risk of stroke and a 8% lower risk of heart failure. Credit: AHA Scientific Sessions Presentation

近期,除了上述新成果外,一项发表在美国心脏协会2017年科学会议上的初步研究也表示,与不喝咖啡的人相比,喝咖啡(every additional cup of coffee consumed per week)与“患心力衰竭风险降低7%”以及“患中风心风险降低8%”有关。

专家观点

对于这些研究结果,约翰霍普金斯彭博公共卫生学院的Eliseo Guallar在一篇相关的社论中写道:“虽然,我们可以放心,喝咖啡通常是安全的,但是医生不应该建议喝咖啡来预防疾病,人们也不应该因为健康原因而开始喝咖啡。正如新研究所指出的,一些人喝咖啡出现副作用的风险会很高。此外,较高水平的咖啡摄入也会产生‘很大的不确定性’。不过,尽管有这些‘警告’,但适度的咖啡消费似乎非常安全,可以被大多数成年人纳入健康饮食的一部分。

参考资料:

Three to four cups of coffee a day linked to longer life

Three cups of coffee a day 'may have health benefits'

Drinking coffee may be associated with reduced risk of heart failure and stroke

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  • Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes

    Abstract Objectives To evaluate the existing evidence for associations between coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes. Design Umbrella review of the evidence across meta-analyses of observational and interventional studies of coffee consumption and any health outcome. Data sources PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Meta-analyses of both observational and interventional studies that examined the associations between coffee consumption and any health outcome in any adult population in all countries and all settings. Studies of genetic polymorphisms for coffee metabolism were excluded. Results The umbrella review identified 201 meta-analyses of observational research with 67 unique health outcomes and 17 meta-analyses of interventional research with nine unique outcomes. Coffee consumption was more often associated with benefit than harm for a range of health outcomes across exposures including high versus low, any versus none, and one extra cup a day. There was evidence of a non-linear association between consumption and some outcomes, with summary estimates indicating largest relative risk reduction at intakes of three to four cups a day versus none, including all cause mortality (relative risk 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.88), cardiovascular mortality (0.81, 0.72 to 0.90), and cardiovascular disease (0.85, 0.80 to 0.90). High versus low consumption was associated with an 18% lower risk of incident cancer (0.82, 0.74 to 0.89). Consumption was also associated with a lower risk of several specific cancers and neurological, metabolic, and liver conditions. Harmful associations were largely nullified by adequate adjustment for smoking, except in pregnancy, where high versus low/no consumption was associated with low birth weight (odds ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.67), preterm birth in the first (1.22, 1.00 to 1.49) and second (1.12, 1.02 to 1.22) trimester, and pregnancy loss (1.46, 1.06 to 1.99). There was also an association between coffee drinking and risk of fracture in women but not in men. Conclusion Coffee consumption seems generally safe within usual levels of intake, with summary estimates indicating largest risk reduction for various health outcomes at three to four cups a day, and more likely to benefit health than harm. Robust randomised controlled trials are needed to understand whether the observed associations are causal. Importantly, outside of pregnancy, existing evidence suggests that coffee could be tested as an intervention without significant risk of causing harm. Women at increased risk of fracture should possibly be excluded.

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