运动对大脑健康有好处,这次科学家提供了“最权威证据”
2017/11/18
近日,来自澳大利亚的科学家领导的一项研究发现,有氧运动可以改善记忆功能、保持大脑健康。作者称,这一研究提供了迄今为止“关于运动对大脑健康有益处”的一些最权威的证据。

随着年龄的增长,大脑的健康状况会随之下降。在40岁后,大脑平均每10年萎缩约5%。对小鼠和大鼠的研究一致表明,体育锻炼能够增加海马区的尺寸,但是,直到现在,在人类中这些研究的结果还是不一致的。

发表在NeuroImage杂志上的这一研究中,西悉尼大学的研究人员与英国曼彻斯特大学的科学家们合作,调查了有氧运动对大脑海马区域的影响。该区域对记忆和其它大脑功能至关重要。


具体来说,科学家们系统回顾了14个临床试验。这些临床试验旨在调查737位参与者在有氧运动(包括固定的骑自行车、步行和在跑步机上跑步)之前和之后,或者在对照条件下的大脑扫描情况。

参与者包括健康的成年人、有轻度认知障碍的人(如阿尔茨海默症)以及临床诊断具有精神疾病的人(包括抑郁症、精神分裂症)。他们的年龄在24岁到76岁之间,平均年龄为66岁。参与者们有氧运动的时长从3个月到24个月不等,运动强度为每周2-5个Sessions(2-5 sessions per week)。

总体而言,研究结果显示,虽然有氧运动对总海马体积没有显著影响,但与对照组相比,有氧运动对左海马体体积(left hippocampal volume)具有显著的积极作用


Lead author, NICM postdoctoral research fellow, Joseph Firth said the study provides some of the most definitive evidence to date on the benefits of exercise for brain health.

论文的第一作者兼通讯作者Joseph Firth说:“我们的数据显示,事实上,有氧运动主要的大脑益处并不是增加海马体积,而是减缓大脑的退化。换句话说,锻炼可以被看作是大脑的一种维护程序。”

他解释称,当人们锻炼时,机体会产生一种叫做脑源性神经营养因子(brain-derived neurotrophic factor)的化学物质。这种物质可以通过降低大脑的退化来阻止与年龄相关的各种衰退。

研究人员认为,这些结果可能会对预防与年龄相关的神经退行性疾病有一定的影响。不过,还需要进一步的研究来证实这一点。

参加资料:

Exercise increases brain size, new research finds

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  • Effect of aerobic exercise on hippocampal volume in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Hippocampal volume increase in response to aerobic exercise has been consistently observed in animal models. However, the evidence from human studies is equivocal. We undertook a systematic review to identify all controlled trials examining the effect of aerobic exercise on the hippocampal volumes in humans, and applied meta-analytic techniques to determine if aerobic exercise resulted in volumetric increases. We also sought to establish how volume changes differed in relation to unilateral measures of left/right hippocampal volume, and across the lifespan. A systematic search identified 4398 articles, of which 14 were eligible for inclusion in the primary analysis. A random-effects meta-analysis showed no significant effect of aerobic exercise on total hippocampal volume across the 737 participants. However, aerobic exercise had significant positive effects on left hippocampal volume in comparison to control conditions. Post-hoc analyses indicated effects were driven through exercise preventing the volumetric decreases which occur over time. These results provide meta-analytic evidence for exercise-induced volumetric retention in the left hippocampus. Aerobic exercise interventions may be useful for preventing age-related hippocampal deterioration and maintaining neuronal health.

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