Cell:自然进化的肠道微生物群可对抗流感和癌症
2017/10/25
日前,发表在Cell杂志上的一篇最新论文中,来自美国NIH的科学家们报告称,被移植了野生小鼠肠道细菌的实验室小鼠不仅能够从致命的流感病毒感染中幸存下来,还能比只拥有自己肠道细菌的实验室小鼠显著更好地对抗结肠直肠癌。


图片来源:Cell

随后,研究人员将野生小鼠的微生物群移植到怀孕的、无菌的C57BL/6小鼠中小贴士:无菌小鼠是在无菌的环境下长大的,并没有自己的微生物组)。为了进行对照比较,他们还将来自正常培养的C57BL/6小鼠的微生物群移植到了另一组怀孕的无菌C57BL/6小鼠体内(简称“对照组”)。经历了4代传递后,后代小鼠依然携带着从它们的“祖辈”传递下来的野生小鼠微生物组和对照组正常培养的C57BL/6小鼠微生物组。

更重要的是,研究证实,当接触高剂量的流感病毒时,92%携带野生小鼠微生物组的实验室小鼠存活了下来,相比之下,实验室小鼠和对照组小鼠存活下来的比例只有17%。此外,拥有野生小鼠微生物组的实验室小鼠在面对诱发性结直肠肿瘤时表现得更好,而其它小鼠肿瘤数量更多、病情更严重。同时,研究还发现,野生小鼠微生物群的这些益处与炎症降低有关。

意义

对于这项成果的意义,论文的共同通讯作者 Barbara Rehermann博士表示:“我们认为,通过修复实验室小鼠的‘微生物特性’将改进研究人员对自由生活的哺乳动物复杂疾病的建模,包括人类疾病。

研究人员还指出,未来还需要做更多的工作来确认这一研究结果。Rehermann强调,他们正计划通过描述微生物组的所有组成部分(如细菌、病毒、真菌)来创建一个天然微生物群的完整图谱。

参考资料:

Gut bacteria from wild mice boost health in lab mice

Wild Mouse Gut Microbiota Promotes Host Fitness and Improves Disease Resistance

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  • Wild Mouse Gut Microbiota Promotes Host Fitness and Improves Disease Resistance

    Laboratory mice, while paramount for understanding basic biological phenomena, are limited in modeling complex diseases of humans and other free-living mammals. Because the microbiome is a major factor in mammalian physiology, we aimed to identify a naturally evolved reference microbiome to better recapitulate physiological phenomena relevant in the natural world outside the laboratory. Among 21 distinct mouse populations worldwide, we identified a closely related wild relative to standard laboratory mouse strains. Its bacterial gut microbiome differed significantly from its laboratory mouse counterpart and was transferred to and maintained in laboratory mice over several generations. Laboratory mice reconstituted with natural microbiota exhibited reduced inflammation and increased survival following influenza virus infection and improved resistance against mutagen/inflammation-induced colorectal tumorigenesis. By demonstrating the host fitness-promoting traits of natural microbiota, our findings should enable the discovery of protective mechanisms relevant in the natural world and improve the modeling of complex diseases of free-living mammals.

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