女同胞们请注意!压力对健康的影响,类似于垃圾食品
2017/10/21
日常生活中,女性往往承担着更高的焦虑和抑郁概率,这与压力有关。最新一篇由中外团队联合完成的研究表明,压力会改变雌性小鼠肠道菌群的结构和组成,且影响力等同于垃圾食品。


“与垃圾食品一样,压力也同样影响健康,特别是对于女性而言!”

这是《Scientific Reports》期刊最新一篇文章的结论,由杨百翰大学的微生物学和分子生物学教授Laura Bridgewater团队和上海交通大学赵立平教授课题组合作完成。他们发现,压力会改变雌性小鼠肠道菌群的结构,类似于高脂肪饮食对肠道菌的影响。然而对于雄鼠而言,压力对肠道菌群似乎没有影响。

“这一研究新颖之处在于,它将压力与女性肠道微生物的特定变化联系起来。我们有时候认为,压力是一种纯粹的心理反应,但是现在我们知道,它确实会导致明显的生理变化。” Laura Bridgewater教授强调道。

研究方法:饮食、压力和性别

研究团队以8周大的小鼠为模型,将雌鼠、雄鼠分别随机分成两组,其中一组会以高脂肪的食物进行喂养,另一组会摄取标准的鼠粮。喂养16周后,所有小鼠每天都会承受1至两次的轻微压力(例如在冷水中强迫游泳、潮湿的睡觉环境、捕食者的气味),共持续18天。

接下来,主要通过分析压力暴露前后小鼠的粪便样本,确定它们肠道菌群受饮食、压力影响的模式。此外,通过评估小鼠在迷宫中游走的次数、位置评估这些啮齿动物的焦虑程度。

性别差异:压力只改变雌鼠肠道菌群

结果显示,高脂肪饮食背景下,雄性和雌性小鼠都的肠道菌群都发生了显著变化。但是,高脂肪饮食雄鼠焦虑程度比高脂肪雌鼠大,而且前者在应激反应中活动力下降。

对于标准饮食培养的小鼠而言,压力只会导致雌鼠肠道菌群发生变化,就像它们吃了高脂肪食物一样。

这些结果表明,基于肠道菌群的变化差异,压力对于男性和女性会产生不同的影响。虽然这项研究基于小鼠模型完成,但是研究人员认为,它同样适用于人类,特别是女性健康。

参考资料:

Stress may harm gut health as much as junk food

Study shows stress could be just as unhealthy as junk food

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  • Gender-based differences in host behavior and gut microbiota composition in response to high fat diet and stress in a mouse model

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. Both stress and high fat diet can alter the gut microbiota and contribute to obesity. To examine the interrelationships between obesity, stress, gut microbiota and mood disorders, obesity was induced in mice using a high fat diet, and the mice were subsequently stressed using a chronic unpredictable mild stress protocol. During the experiment, the composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed by 16 S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, and anxiety-like behaviors were measured. The results revealed distinct gender differences in the impacts of obesity and stress on anxiety-like behaviors, activity levels, and composition of the gut microbiota. Male mice were more vulnerable to the anxiogenic effects of the high fat diet, and obese male mice showed decreased locomotion activity in response to stress whereas obese female mice did not. In females, stress caused the gut microbiota of lean mice to more closely resemble that of obese mice. Taken together, these results suggest the importance of considering gender as a biological variable in studies on the role of gut microbiota in obesity-related mood disorders.

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