6.3万人、11年跟踪研究!红肉、家禽肉显著增加糖尿病风险
2017/09/13
调查肉类消费与糖尿病风险最大的亚洲研究之一显示,较高的红肉和家禽肉(red meat and poultry)摄入量与糖尿病风险显著增加有关。该研究还证实了用鱼类/贝类代替红肉或家禽肉的好处。


图片来源:网络

虽然植物性饮食通常被认为比肉类饮食在预防糖尿病风险方面更加健康,但并不是所有肉类对糖尿病风险都有同样的影响。

近日,发表在American Journal of Epidemiology杂志上题为“Meat, Dietary Heme Iron, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Singapore Chinese Health Study”的研究发现,较高的红肉和家禽肉( red meat and poultry)摄入量与糖尿病风险显著增加有关。

这一发现源于一项名为“Singapore Chinese Health Study”的研究。该研究在1993到1998年间招募了63,257名年龄在45岁到74岁之间的成年人,然后对参与者平均随访了约11年。

研究发现,红肉和家禽肉的摄入与患糖尿病风险之间存在着“正相关”(positive association),而鱼类/贝类(fish/shellfish)的摄入量与糖尿病风险无关。此外,与红肉/家禽肉相关的糖尿病风险增长可以通过用鱼类/贝类替代它们来降低。

为了理解红肉和家禽肉在糖尿病发展中起作用的潜在机制,该研究还调查了所有肉类的饮食血红素-铁含量(dietary heme-iron content)与糖尿病风险之间的关联,并发现了一种剂量依赖性的“正相关”。当调整了饮食中的血红素-铁含量后,红肉与糖尿病的关联依然存在,这表明,可能是红肉中存在的其它化学物质导致了糖尿病风险的增加。相反,当调整了饮食中的血红素-铁含量后,家禽肉摄入量与糖尿病风险之间的关联变成了零,表明家禽肉引发的糖尿病风险增加就是由这类肉中的血红素-铁含量引起的。

该研究是调查肉类消费与糖尿病风险最大的亚洲研究之一,并且结果与其它西方研究一致。共同通讯作者Koh Woon Puay教授说:“我们不需要完全从饮食中去除肉类。我们希望基于这一研究结果,向公众提供一些信息,让他们能够选择更健康的食物,用以降低疾病风险。”

参考资料:

Eating meat linked to higher risk of diabetes

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  • Meat, Dietary Heme Iron, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    We evaluated the relationships of red meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish intakes, as well as heme iron intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort study that recruited 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45–74 years from 1993 to 1998. Usual diet was evaluated using a validated 165-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at recruitment. Physician-diagnosed T2D was self-reported during 2 follow-up interviews in 1999–2004 and 2006–2010. During a mean follow-up of 10.9 years, 5,207 incident cases of T2D were reported. When comparing persons in the highest intake quartiles with those in the lowest, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for T2D was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.33) for red meat intake (P for trend < 0.001), 1.15 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.24) for poultry intake (P for trend = 0.004), and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.16) for fish/shellfish intake (P for trend = 0.12). After additional adjustment for heme iron, only red meat intake remained significantly associated with T2D risk (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.25; P for trend = 0.02). Heme iron was associated with a higher risk of T2D even after additional adjustment for red meat intake (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.28; P for trend = 0.03). In conclusion, red meat and poultry intakes were associated with a higher risk of T2D. These associations were mediated completely for poultry and partially for red meat by heme iron intake.

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