Health Affairs最新研究:这几项健康生活方式,让你多活7年!
2017/07/26
最新发表在Health Affairs(《健康事务杂志》)上的一项研究显示:保持适度健康的生活方式(避免肥胖、不吸烟、适度饮酒),不做出危险行为,会使人的预期寿命延长7年。

近日,由德国马克斯普朗克人口研究所(Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research)和美国密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的研究人员在1998年至2012年期间的一项调查研究被发表在7月20日的Health Affairs(《健康事务杂志》)上。


Percentages of adults ages 50–59 who ever smoked, were ever obese, or ever had either risk factor, selected years

研究发现:美国有超过1.4万名年龄在50岁到89岁之间的人,他们从不吸烟,也不肥胖,寿命也比一般人长4到5年;适度饮酒的人比一般人多活7年,其平均寿命甚至超过了日本人,后者在全世界以长寿而著称;不超重、从不吸烟和适量饮酒的男性,比吸烟、超重和过度饮酒的男性平均寿命要长11年,女性之间的差距甚至更大,高达12年。


Mean age of first incident of disability at age 50 or later, by behavioral risk factor


Overall, disability-free, and disabled life expectancy at age 50, by behavioral risk factor


Overall, disability-free, and disabled life expectancy at age 50, by behavioral profile

领衔这项研究的德国马克斯普朗克人口研究所主任Mikko Myrskylä博士指出:医疗技术改善常被认为是促进人们更健康、更长寿的保证。但他们的研究表明,健康的生活方式也可以在不花费任何成本的情况下,保证人们享受一段更长、更健康的人生。

他表示,适度健康的生活方式足以让人们获得更长的寿命。避免肥胖、不吸烟、适度饮酒对很多人而言并不是很难做到。虽然通过医疗手段也能延长多年的寿命,但这种生活的质量并不高,而通过保持好的生活方式所延长的寿命,一般都与健康的身体条件相关,也就是说,这种方式延长的寿命更有生活质量。

在他看来,专注于预防是非常重要的,针对健康行为实施有效的政策干预措施,可帮助更多人实现健康效益。

值得一提的是,本月初美国癌症协会下属的《肿瘤学年鉴》杂志上发表了一项最新的调查显示:中国52%男性癌症患者的死亡以及35%女性癌症患者的死亡都归因于可控因素,报告确定了常见的可控致癌因素(包括吸烟、二手烟、饮酒、水果蔬菜摄入不足、体重超重、不运动和致癌感染)。这也意味着我们更加要养成良好的生活习惯,毕竟健康的生活习惯对于我们来说终究是百利而无一害。

参考资料:

Healthy Lifestyle May Increase Lifespan by 7 Years

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  • The Population Health Benefits Of A Healthy Lifestyle: Life Expectancy Increased And Onset Of Disability Delayed

    A key determinant of population health is the behavioral profile of a population. Nearly 80 percent of Americans reach their fifties having smoked cigarettes, been obese, or both. It is unknown to what extent risky behaviors (for example, smoking, having a poor diet, being physically inactive, and consuming an excessive amount of alcohol) collectively are reducing the health and life expectancy of the US population, or what improvements might be achievable in their absence. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we studied people ages fifty and older who had never smoked, who were not obese, and who consumed alcohol moderately. Compared to the whole US population, those with such a favorable behavioral profile had a life expectancy at age fifty that was seven years longer, and they experienced a delay in the onset of disability of up to six years. These results provide a benchmark for evaluating the massively damaging effects that behavioral risks have on health at older ages and the importance of prioritizing policies to implement behavioral-based interventions.

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