新证据!高强度运动,延缓细胞衰老
2017/05/16
运动保护端粒,又有新证据啦!不过,这项新研究强调的是高强度运动。具体来说,研究发现,始终保持高强度身体活动的人比那些久坐不动的人以及中度活动的人具有显著更长的端粒。

近日,发表在Preventive Medicine上题为“Physical activity and telomere length in U.S. men and women: An NHANES investigation”的研究显示,只要你愿意流汗,你可能就能够减缓细胞中的衰老。美国杨百翰大学的Larry A. Tucker教授是该研究的通讯作者。

具体来说,这一研究发现,始终保持高强度身体活动的人比那些久坐不动的人以及中度活动的人具有显著更长的端粒。

端粒是染色体末端的一种结构,对维持人类基因组的稳定至关重要。打个比方说,端粒就像“鞋带两头的塑料封套”,保证鞋带不会松开。但端粒自身也有寿命,它被称作“生命时钟”,细胞每分裂一次,端粒就缩短一次,当端粒不能再缩短时,细胞就无法继续分裂而死亡。

端粒长度是生物学年龄的一种标志物。先前的研究表明,成人的端粒长度与年龄相关性疾病相关,如心血管疾病、2型糖尿病。我们的年龄越大,端粒就越短。但事实上,端粒长度究竟是如何影响人类疾病的很大程度上依然是一个谜。


小编注意到,今年3月,发表在Journal of Clinical Investigation 杂志上题为“Long telomeres protect against age-dependent cardiac disease caused by NOTCH1 haploinsufficiency”的论文发现了防止小鼠形成与衰老相关的人类疾病的关键机制,证实了长端粒的保护作用。

在这项最新的研究中,Tucker教授发现,与久坐不动的人相比,坚持高强度身体活动的成年人的端粒具有9年的生物学衰老优势;与坚持中度身体活动的人相比,这一优势为7年。

为了保持高强度运动,女性必须每天进行30分钟的慢跑(男性为40分钟),每周坚持5天。

Tucker教授说:“如果你想看到减缓生物学衰老的真正变化,一点点锻炼似乎不行。你必须保持规律的高水平运动。”

研究分析的数据来自参与“国家健康与营养调查”(National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey)的5,823名成年人。结果发现,久坐不动的人端粒最短。与高度运动的人相比,他们端粒末端少140个碱基对。令人惊讶的是,研究还发现,坚持低度或中度身体活动的人与久坐不动的人的端粒长度无显著差异。

尽管锻炼保护端粒的确切机制还不清楚,但Tucker教授认为,这可能与炎症和氧化应激有关。先前的研究表明,端粒长度与这两个因素密切相关。

除这项研究外,去年发表在Science Advances杂志上题为“Nuclear respiratory factor 1 and endurance exercise promote human telomere transcription”的研究也提出了端粒与运动的关联。文章证实,锻炼能够促进端粒转录,产生有益分子,促进新陈代谢,对抗衰老。【详细

参考资料:

High levels of exercise linked to nine years of less aging at the cellular level

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  • Physical activity and telomere length in U.S. men and women: An NHANES investigation

    The principal objective was to determine the extent to which physical activity (PA) accounts for differences in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a large random sample of U.S. adults. Another purpose was to assess the extent to which multiple demographic and lifestyle covariates affect the relationship between PA and LTL. A total of 5823 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002) were studied cross-sectionally. Employing the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, LTL was compared to standard reference DNA. PA was indexed using MET-minutes using self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of participation in 62 physical activities. Covariates were controlled statistically. Telomeres were 15.6 base pairs shorter for each year of chronological age (F = 723.2, P < 0.0001). PA was inversely related to LTL after adjusting for all the covariates (F = 8.3, P = 0.0004). Telomere base pair differences between adults with High activity and those in the Sedentary, Low, and Moderate groups were 140, 137, and 111, respectively. Adults with High activity were estimated to have a biologic aging advantage of 9 years (140 base pairs ÷ 15.6) over Sedentary adults. The difference in cell aging between those with High and Low activity was also significant, 8.8 years, as was the difference between those with High and Moderate PA (7.1 years). Overall, PA was significantly and meaningfully associated with telomere length in U.S. men and women. Evidently, adults who participate in high levels of PA tend to have longer telomeres, accounting for years of reduced cellular aging compared to their more sedentary counterparts.

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