柳叶刀子刊!孕期补充微量元素,后代更加聪明
2017/01/24
研究人员发现,与服用铁和叶酸的孕妇相比,服用多种微量营养素的孕妇所产后代拥有更高的智力评分,相当于多了半年的教育;并且贫血的孕妇服用多种微量营养素,后代的一般智力得分会更高,相当于增加了1年的教育。


最新研究表明,孕期服用维生素可以使后代更加聪明,孕期补充多种微量营养剂能改善后代的程序记忆,相关研究发表在The Lancet Global Health上。科学家声称,使后代更聪明的要素还包括早期的哺育、母亲的幸福感以及父母的受教育程度。

哈佛大学和加利福尼亚大学的研究人员对多种微量营养素补充剂干预试验进行随访研究,这些研究包括两类:孕期补充多种微量营养素(叶酸、核黄素、烟酸和维生素B12、维生素C和维生素D)以及孕期服用铁和叶酸。

研究人员评估了多种微量营养素补充剂、生物因素、社会环境因素对后代一般智力、陈述性记忆、程序性记忆、执行能力、学业成绩、精细动作熟练度以及社会性情绪健康的影响。生物因素包括孕妇和后代的人体测量学、血红蛋白和早产;社会环境因素包括父母的教育、社会经济地位、家庭环境以及孕产妇抑郁症。

他们发现,与服用铁和叶酸的孕妇相比,服用多种微量营养素的孕妇所产后代的最终评估得分要高,相当于多了半年的教育;并且贫血的孕妇服用多种微量营养素,后代的一般智力得分会更高,相当于增加了1年的教育。

本文作者,加利福尼亚大学的Elizabeth Prado博士表示该结果令人惊讶!她说,“从我们的认知评估程度、测试数量以及搜集到的孕期数据,我们可以清楚地量化多种微量营养补充剂的影响。”

而且芬兰的研究人员还曾发现,健康饮食对儿童智力发育发挥着重要的作用。儿童在学校的头三年里吃水果、蔬菜、鱼和粗粮,在考试中会表现更好。

参考资料:

Want to have smart children? Taking vitamins during pregnancy can help to boost their IQ by as much of a year of schooling

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  • Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation and other biomedical and socioenvironmental influences on children's cognition at age 9–12 years in Indonesia: follow-up of the SUMMIT randomised trial

    Background Brain and cognitive development during the first 1000 days from conception are affected by multiple biomedical and socioenvironmental determinants including nutrition, health, nurturing, and stimulation. An improved understanding of the long-term influence of these factors is needed to prioritise public health investments to optimise human development. Methods We did a follow-up study of the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind, cluster-randomised trial of maternal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron and folic acid (IFA) in Indonesia. Of 27 356 live infants from birth to 3 months of age in 2001–04, we re-enrolled 19 274 (70%) children at age 9–12 years, and randomly selected 2879 from the 18 230 who were attending school at a known location. Of these, 574 children were oversampled from mothers who were anaemic or malnourished at SUMMIT enrolment. We assessed the effects of MMN and associations of biomedical (ie, maternal and child anthropometry and haemoglobin and preterm birth) and socioenvironmental determinants (ie, parental education, socioeconomic status, home environment, and maternal depression) on general intellectual ability, declarative memory, procedural memory, executive function, academic achievement, fine motor dexterity, and socioemotional health. The SUMMIT trial was registered, number ISRCTN34151616. Findings Children of mothers given MMN had a mean score of 0·11 SD (95% CI 0·01–0·20, p=0·0319) higher in procedural memory than those given IFA, equivalent to the increase in scores with half a year of schooling. Children of anaemic mothers in the MMN group scored 0·18 SD (0·06–0·31, p=0·0047) higher in general intellectual ability, similar to the increase with 1 year of schooling. Overall, 18 of 21 tests showed a positive coefficient of MMN versus IFA (p=0·0431) with effect sizes from 0·00–0·18 SD. In multiple regression models, socioenvironmental determinants had coefficients of 0·00–0·43 SD and 22 of 35 tests were significant at the 95% CI level, whereas biomedical coefficients were 0·00–0·10 SD and eight of 56 tests were significant, indicating larger and more consistent impact of socioenvironmental factors (p<0·0001). Interpretation Maternal MMN had long-term benefits for child cognitive development at 9–12 years of age, thereby supporting its role in early childhood development, and policy change toward MMN. The stronger association of socioenvironmental determinants with improved cognition suggests present reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health programmes focused on biomedical determinants might not sufficiently enhance child cognition, and that programmes addressing socioenvironmental determinants are essential to achieve thriving populations.

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