运动产生的新神经元不会损害你的记忆力
2016/08/06
研究发现,运动使得大脑区域更多新神经元形成。而新研究与早期研究不同的是,这些神经元不会使人脑忘记旧的记忆。

运动有着众所周知的好处,它能使大脑负责学习,记忆和情绪的脑区形成新的神经元。因此,对于2014年科学杂志上发表的一篇关于运动使老鼠忘记旧记忆的文章,这无疑是个大反击。

“这个发现震惊了神经领域。”德克萨斯A&M大学分子细胞医学系教授,再生医学研究所副所长,德克萨斯退伍军人医疗保健系统研究科学家Ashok K.PhD说,“这是个非常好的研究,它引起了那些认为运动会伤害记忆力的研究者的关注。”

在过去的研究中,运动组的动物比对照组的动物显示形成更多的神经,但是这些新的神经元可能会消除人们旧的记忆。为了测试这一点,研究人员移除了新的神经元,这些小鼠又突然记起了旧的记忆。

“运动的老鼠产生了大量新的神经元。”Shetty说,“但是这似乎打破了原来神经元之间的链接,使它们忘记了以前的记忆。”

Shetty和他的团队决定重复这个早期的研究。大鼠与人体生理反应似乎更接近,所以他们选用了大鼠而非小鼠。他们发现运动的大鼠模型并没有发生记忆退化。

“我们得到了和2014年那个研究完全相反的结果。”再生医学研究所的博士后研究员,本研究的第一作者,Maheedhar Kodali博士说,“现在我们需要研究其他物种来充分了解这个现象。”

Shetty和他的团队训练动物模型来完成一个维持四天的课程,然后接着几天巩固记忆这几天反复执行的任务。受过训练的大鼠放进笼子会继续运行车轮,而对照组却一动不动。

在该过程中,跑程长的大鼠比跑程短的大鼠产生的神经元多,而运行车轮的大鼠组都比对照组产生的神经元都多。它们平均在四周内跑了48英里,而神经元增加了一倍。

“很明显,这能证明运动能够显著增加神经元的数量,”Kodali说:“神经元对于维持正常的情绪,学习力和创造力都是很重要的。这可以解释为什么运动是一种有效的抗抑郁药。”

重要的是,尽管神经元数量不同程度地增加,但是那些运动量多的和运动量少的记忆力回想能力相同,这意味着大量的运动也不会干扰记忆。“运动是无害的,”Shetty说,“它不会退化记忆力,而且有很多研究能证明它的好处,比如能增强记忆力,保持良好的情绪。”

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  • The Journal of Neuroscience

    Running exercise (RE) improves cognition, formation of anterograde memories, and mood, alongside enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis. A previous investigation in a mouse model showed that RE-induced increased neurogenesis erases retrograde memory (Akers et al., 2014). However, it is unknown whether RE-induced forgetting is common to all species. We ascertained whether voluntary RE-induced enhanced neurogenesis interferes with the recall of spatial memory in rats. Young rats assigned to either sedentary (SED) or running exercise (RE) groups were first subjected to eight learning sessions in a water maze. A probe test (PT) conducted 24 h after the final training session confirmed that animals in either group had a similar ability for the recall of short-term memory. Following this, rats in the RE group were housed in larger cages fitted with running wheels, whereas rats in the SED group remained in standard cages. Animals in the RE group ran an average of 78 km in 4 weeks. A second PT performed 4 weeks after the first PT revealed comparable ability for memory recall between animals in the RE and SED groups, which was evidenced through multiple measures of memory retrieval function. The RE group displayed a 1.5- to 2.1-fold higher hippocampal neurogenesis than SED rats. Additionally, both moderate and brisk RE did not interfere with the recall of memory, although increasing amounts of RE proportionally enhanced neurogenesis. In conclusion, RE does not impair memory recall ability in a rat model despite substantially increasing neurogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Running exercise (RE) improves new memory formation along with an increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In view of a recent study showing that RE-mediated increased hippocampal neurogenesis promotes forgetfulness in a mouse model, we ascertained whether a similar adverse phenomenon exists in a rat model. Memory recall ability examined 4 weeks after learning confirmed that animals that had run a mean of 78 km and displayed a 1.5- to 2.1-fold increase in hippocampal neurogenesis demonstrated similar proficiency for memory recall as animals that had remained sedentary. Furthermore, both moderate and brisk RE did not interfere with memory recall, although increasing amounts of RE proportionally enhanced neurogenesis, implying that RE has no adverse effects on memory recall.

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