【BMJ等四刊齐发】日常生活与乳腺癌(水果、饮酒、瑜伽...)
2016/06/05
水果、运动、饮酒这些词在日常生活中已经司空见惯,但与乳腺癌联系起来,却很少有人知道这其中的关联。近日BMJ等国际期刊频频报道了日常生活中一些可主观控制的行为对乳腺癌的影响。


图片来源:medicalxpress.com

水果、运动、饮酒这些词在日常生活中已经司空见惯,但与乳腺癌联系起来,却很少有人知道这其中的关联。近日BMJ等国际期刊频频报道了日常生活中一些可主观控制的行为对乳腺癌的影响。

水果与乳腺癌

5月12日,BMJ杂志报道了水果、蔬菜摄入与乳腺癌风险的关系。美国哈佛大学的研究人员对来自美国护士健康研究2期(Nurses’ Health Study II,NHS II)的90473名女性进行长达20年的追踪研究,参与者的年龄段为27-44岁,均在绝经前完成了饮食相关的问卷调查,其中44223名女性完成了青春期饮食问卷调查。

调查发现,青春期水果摄入量较高的女性中年期患乳腺癌的风险降低25%左右;尤其是在青春期时摄入大量苹果、香蕉及葡萄,在成年早期摄入大量的橙子和蓝莓可明显降低乳腺癌风险,但水果汁的摄入与患癌风险却无关联。然而这些只是初步结论,专家认为还需更多的证据来论证。

酒精与乳腺癌


过量饮酒在生活中一直不被提倡,酒精与疾病的关联也时常被报道,5月11日,BMJ杂志还报道了酒精对乳腺癌风险的影响。丹麦研究人员对2.2万名绝经女性进行跟踪调查,结果发现,在研究的5年时间里,与酒精稳定摄入的个体相比,每天喝两杯酒可使个体乳腺癌风险增加30%。因此研究人员认为少量或适度饮酒是有益的,但过量饮酒似乎会增加个体患乳腺癌的风险。

然而,6月1日,《Alcoholism:Clinical and Experimental Research》上的研究表明即使是少量饮酒也会增加乳腺癌的风险,而高水平饮酒将导致更高的乳腺癌风险。此外,研究人员还总结了酒精影响全球乳腺癌发病率和死亡率的生物学机制。

在该论文中,研究人员总结了酒精影响乳腺癌风险的三种生物学途径:酒精改变激素水平、酒精代谢使机体产生致癌化合物以及酒精阻止关键的代谢途径——一碳代谢途径。此外,研究人员对关于酒精和乳腺癌风险相关的已有报道进行荟萃分析,结果发现酒精摄入量和乳腺癌风险之间存在剂量-反应关系,因而他们认为,与不饮酒的人相比,即使是低剂量的酒精也会增加乳腺癌的风险。在该研究中,研究人员评估了酒精对全球乳腺癌的影响,共追踪了2012年的144000个乳腺癌病例,其中38000例死亡,研究人员发现,18.8%的所有病例以及17.5%的死亡病例为轻度饮酒者。

“正念减压”与乳腺癌


5月31日,《 Journal of Clinical Oncology》杂志表明,正念冥想可帮助乳腺癌患者更好地管理疲劳症状、焦虑及复发的恐惧。曾有研究发现,正念冥想可以较少普通人群以及乳腺癌幸存者的压力和焦虑。在本研究中,美国南佛罗里达州大学的研究人员探讨了正念冥想的临床价值。研究人员将这种方法称为“正念减压”,包括深呼吸冥想、瑜伽、“人体扫描技术(a body scan technique)”——(参与者可了解自身的整个身体状态)以及步行冥想。他们发现,在为期六周的研究里,与未正念冥想相比,正念冥想可减少乳腺癌患者的焦虑、恐惧及疲劳感,在随后的12周随访中,这种效应具有持续性。

备注:本文根据Medical Xpress、MNT网站编译整理,部分翻译参考生物谷

相关链接:

Mindfulness meditation seems to soothe breast cancer survivors

Breast cancer risk rises even with light alcohol use

How fruit and alcohol impact breast cancer risk

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