Nature:巧用“特洛伊木马”召唤免疫大军,歼灭癌症
2016/06/03
本周三,德国研究人员提出了巧用“特洛伊木马”攻击癌症的方法——在机体内潜入“病毒”从而促进机体产生抗肿瘤免疫力,相关结果发表在《Nature》杂志上。


本周三,德国研究人员提出了巧用“特洛伊木马”攻击癌症的方法——在机体内潜入“病毒”从而促进机体产生抗肿瘤免疫力,相关结果发表在《Nature》杂志上。

目前该方法只在三名患者体内进行测试,同时也是免疫疗法的最新进展——旨在召唤人体自身免疫大军以对抗疾病。在本研究中,“特洛伊木马”在实验室中合成,是一种由脂肪酸膜包裹着癌基因RNA的纳米颗粒。研究人员将纳米颗粒注入患者体内模拟病毒侵袭,同时纳米颗粒渗透到专门的免疫细胞中,例如编码RNA的树状突细胞,这反过来促进肿瘤抗原的产生,抗原又激活了抗癌T细胞,从而形成了全面的抗癌机制。

在小鼠试验之后,三名晚期皮肤癌患者接受了低剂量的“特洛伊木马”疗法,这也是人体新药物测试漫长而谨慎的过程,接受治疗后,三名患者均出现了“强大的”免疫反应。研究人员表示,如果进一步研究能表现出更多的疗效,那么该疗法有望为寻求适合多种癌症的“通用疗法”铺平道路。这种新的治疗方法被称为核酸疫苗,它就像一种预防性疫苗一样通过模仿传染源来促进机体产生免疫反应。

Radboud大学医学中心的Jolanda de Vries和Carl Figdor在Nature上分析道,该研究观察到三名癌症患者的免疫反应,真是令人印象深刻。但这仍然只是初步结果,需更大的随机试验来验证。

目前,免疫疗法已被用于治疗某些类型的癌症,但目前还没有适用于所有癌症的通用疫苗。病毒、细菌或真菌有特定的靶向药物,但癌细胞不同,它并非入侵者,是由机体自身细胞DNA损伤失控形成,这也是其不受身体免疫系统干扰的原因。

寻找可杀害病变细胞但对健康细胞无害的药物已被证明非常困难。免疫疗法致力于在不伤害健康细胞的前提下激活人体自身免疫反应。伦敦癌症研究所免疫疗法教授Alan Melcher认为,虽然该研究很有趣,但要证明给患者带来益处,还有很长的路要走,其中制造能广泛应用于临床的纳米颗粒面临的实际挑战就是非常突出的问题。

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