心率影响智慧?科学家说有一定关联
2016/04/12
心率变异性(heart rate variability,HRV)是指通过记录逐次心跳周期差异的变化情况,反映心率变化程度和规律。现在,除了以上功能之外,这一心率差异指标被证实与一个人的智慧有关系。最新研究发现,心率变异性大的人更倾向于做出明智的决策。


心率变异性(heart rate variability,HRV)是指通过记录逐次心跳周期差异的变化情况,反映心率变化程度和规律。它产生于自主神经系统对心脏窦房结的调制,使得心搏间期一般存在几十毫秒的差异和波动。这一指标可以定量评估心脏交感神经与迷走神经张力及其平衡性,从而判断其对心血管疾病的病情及预防,可能是预测心脏性猝死和心律失常性事件的一个有价值的指标。

现在,除了以上功能之外,这一心率差异指标被证实与一个人的智慧有关系。这一最新研究成果由来自于滑铁卢大学心理学系首席研究员Igor Grossman教授团队完成,他们证实,心率变异性大的人更倾向于做出明智的决策。

评价一个人的智慧,并不是单单看智商,而是应该综合智力、学识、记忆、思维逻辑、决策判断、情感社交等多种能力。越来越多的认知科学家和哲学家认为,明智的决策能力能够判断一个人学识累积情况。它通常反映在处理问题、看待观点等方面,受生活环境日积月累的影响。

心率变异性大的人,更倾向于做出明智决策

早在这篇最新研究之前,已经有一些科学家认为心脏会对一个人的智慧产生影响。为了对这一观点深入研究,Grossman团队在西悉尼大学选取了平均年龄为25岁的150名对象参与研究。这些受试对象被要求完成一系列任务,包括社交推理、因果判断测试。

他们会分别以当事人和旁观者的眼光,对自己感兴趣的社会问题提出自己的观点。进行任务过程中,研究人员会通过心电图(ECG)设备监测受试者的心率。

数据显示,当以第三方视角评估社会问题时,相比于心率变异小的参与者,心率变异大的受试对象更倾向于以理智、不带偏见的态度对待问题。然而,当以当事人的身份处理问题时,心率变异性与决策能力之间并没有出现显著的关联性。相关研究成果发表在《the journal Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience》。

出现这种差异的原因是什么?Grossmann教授解释,这一最新研究表明,明智的决策并不仅仅是由思维、认知能力衍生的简易函数。相反,心率差异性可能会其产生影响。心率变异性大且能够以理智态度对待问题的人,更容易做出明智的决策。

他认为,相比于心率变异性较低的人,心率变异性大的人更倾向于具备出色的执行能力。然而,他也强调,这并不意味着,心率变异性大的人更聪明。为了培养他们的决策能力,心率变异大的人通常需要克服过分以自我为中心。

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Wisdom influenced by heart rate variability

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  • A Heart and A Mind: Self-distancing Facilitates the Association Between Heart Rate Variability, and Wise Reasoning

    Cardiac vagal tone (indexed via resting heart rate variability [HRV]) has been previously associated with superior executive functioning. Is HRV related to wiser reasoning and less biased judgments? Here we hypothesize that this will be the case when adopting a self-distanced (as opposed to a self-immersed) perspective, with self-distancing enabling individuals with higher HRV to overcome bias-promoting egocentric impulses and to reason wisely. However, higher HRV may not be associated with greater wisdom when adopting a self-immersed perspective. Participants were randomly assigned to reflect on societal issues from a self-distanced- or self-immersed perspective, with responses coded for reasoning quality. In a separate task, participants read about and evaluated a person performing morally ambiguous actions, with responses coded for dispositional vs. situational attributions. We simultaneously assessed resting cardiac recordings, obtaining six HRV indicators. As hypothesized, in the self-distanced condition, each HRV indicator was positively related to prevalence of wisdom-related reasoning (e.g., prevalence of recognition of limits of one’s knowledge, recognition that the world is in flux/change, consideration of others’ opinions and search for an integration of these opinions) and to balanced vs. biased attributions (recognition of situational and dispositional factors vs. focus on dispositional factors alone). In contrast, there was no relationship between these variables in the self-immersed condition. We discuss implications for research on psychophysiology, cognition, and wisdom.

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