Pediatrics:孕妇肥胖和患糖尿病增加婴儿自闭症风险
2016/02/04
由约翰霍普金斯大学公共卫生学院的研究人员完成的研究发现,患有糖尿病的肥胖女性的孩子患自闭症的风险是正常体重女性(无糖尿病)的后代的4倍。研究成果发表在Pediatrics。


这项研究由约翰霍普金斯大学公共卫生学院的研究人员完成,他们发现,患有糖尿病的肥胖女性的孩子患自闭症的风险是正常体重女性(无糖尿病)的后代的4倍。研究成果发表在Pediatrics。

Xiaobin Wang博士指出,他们早就知道,肥胖和糖尿病不利于母亲的机体健康,现在有进一步的证据表明,这些因素也影响孩子的大脑神经的发展。

根据CDC的数据,约1/68的美国儿童被诊断为自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)。

近20年来,ASD儿童数量迅速增加,2000年,约1/150的儿童患有自闭症。专家并不确定自闭症儿童数目的增加仅仅是由于患病率的增加或诊断方法的改进所致。

2011年,研究人员对40项围产期和新生儿期相关因素与ASD风险的研究进行了荟萃分析。Wang博士和她的同事对1998-2014年出生于 波士顿医疗中心共计2734位母亲及其孩子进行了分析。

收集的数据包括母亲怀孕前体重和糖尿病(包括妊娠期糖尿病)的发病率、孩子从孕期到产后的随访研究记录和产检医疗记录等。

在随访期间,研究人员发现102名儿童患有自闭症。肥胖和孕前糖尿病的母亲生育的孩子患自闭症谱系障碍的风险是健康体重且无糖尿病女性的孩子的四倍。

M. Daniele Fallin指出,这项研究强调了胎儿在子宫内时患自闭症的风险。至于为什么肥胖和糖尿病会增加胎儿今后患自闭症的风险,研究人员认为这可能是因为肥胖和糖尿病会导致孕妇增加压力和机体炎症反应,这可能会影响胎儿大脑神经的发育。

另一种假说认为女性服用叶酸补充剂可能会减低胎儿出现自闭症的风险。肥胖会抑制叶酸的吸收,因此限制叶酸对自闭症风险的减少作用。

因为研究主要是观察所得,没有验证假设。但是,他们认为,他们还需进行更深入的调查。

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