如果饮食缺乏膳食纤维,肠道菌群会被活活“饿死”
生物通 · 2016/01/20
都说膳食纤维重要,但很多人觉得少吃点也无所谓。美国斯坦福大学的一个研究小组会告诉你后果有多严重:肠道菌群会被活活“饿死”。


都说膳食纤维重要,但很多人觉得少吃点也无所谓。美国斯坦福大学的一个研究小组会告诉你后果有多严重:肠道菌群会被活活“饿死”。

微生物学和免疫学贾斯汀·舍恩博格教授和他的研究团队通过小鼠实验发现,有着人类肠道菌群的小鼠如果饮食中缺乏膳食纤维,其肠道菌群中微生物的多样性会显著下降,极易引发相关疾病。如果连续四代都是如此,即便改回富含膳食纤维的饮食也无法恢复菌群的原本状态。

此前就有研究人员发现,如今依然以狩猎和采集为生和那些保持着农业社会生活方式的人,肠道菌群的多样性要高于那些生活在工业化社会中的人。后者饮食中膳食纤维的缺乏被认为是造成这种差异的一种可能。新研究这次给予了有力证明。

可供菌群使用的碳水化合物存在于膳食纤维中,也是肠道微生物的主要能量来源。研究人员给年纪较小的小鼠种植了人类肠道微生物,来确定减少碳水化合物对其造成的影响。

他们发现在一代中,摄入碳水化合物含量低的小鼠肠道菌群的变化还可通过改变饮食结构的方式得以逆转。但如果连续四代都摄入缺乏碳水化合物的食物,肠道菌群的多样性将不断降低,在这种情况下,只有移植失去的微生物群体加上摄入富含可供菌群使用的碳水化合物才能恢复肠道菌群的多样性。相关论文发表在最新一期的《自然》杂志上。

所有文章仅代表作者观点,不代表本站立场。如若转载请联系原作者。
查看更多
  • Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations

    The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including immune function and metabolism1, 2. The reduced diversity of the gut microbiota in Western populations compared to that in populations living traditional lifestyles presents the question of which factors have driven microbiota change during modernization. Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) found in dietary fibre have a crucial involvement in shaping this microbial ecosystem, and are notably reduced in the Western diet (high in fat and simple carbohydrates, low in fibre) compared with a more traditional diet3. Here we show that changes in the microbiota of mice consuming a low-MAC diet and harbouring a human microbiota are largely reversible within a single generation. However, over several generations, a low-MAC diet results in a progressive loss of diversity, which is not recoverable after the reintroduction of dietary MACs. To restore the microbiota to its original state requires the administration of missing taxa in combination with dietary MAC consumption. Our data illustrate that taxa driven to low abundance when dietary MACs are scarce are inefficiently transferred to the next generation, and are at increased risk of becoming extinct within an isolated population. As more diseases are linked to the Western microbiota and the microbiota is targeted therapeutically, microbiota reprogramming may need to involve strategies that incorporate dietary MACs as well as taxa not currently present in the Western gut.

    展开 收起
发表评论 我在frontend\modules\comment\widgets\views\文件夹下面 test