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Nature Genetics:草莓和可可树基因组图谱出炉

2010/12/28 来源:科技日报
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据美国物理学家组织网12月26日报道,在26日出版的《自然―遗传学》杂志上,两组科学家表示,他们分别解开了野生草莓和克里奥洛可可树的基因密码,新发现有助于育种专家培育出品质更高的草莓和可可树品种。 英国生物工艺学和生物学研究委员会(BBSRC)和其他4个国家的70名研究人员绘制

据美国物理学家组织网12月26日报道,在26日出版的《自然―遗传学》杂志上,两组科学家表示,他们分别解开了野生草莓和克里奥洛可可树的基因密码,新发现有助于育种专家培育出品质更高的草莓和可可树品种。

英国生物工艺学和生物学研究委员会(BBSRC)和其他4个国家的70名研究人员绘制出了野生草莓完整的基因组图谱,研究发现,野生草莓共有约3.5万个基因,是人类基因数量的1.5倍,野生草莓的大部分基因也出现在人工培育的草莓品种中。研究人员首先将野生草莓的基因组分割成数百万个短小的片段,然后给每个片段排序,接着将所有片段组合起来,从而绘制出了野生草莓完整的基因组图谱。

该研究小组的研究人员丹萨杰表示:“几百年来,农民一般采用杂交育种的方式来改进农作物的特性,杂交草莓的基因组图谱更复杂,但野生草莓的基因数相对比较少,我们能更容易得到所有有用的基因。”

该研究团队的研究员、美国俄勒冈州立大学的托德莫克勒表示:“科学家可以据此培育出能更好对抗害虫、气味香甜、耐高温、所需肥料更少、存放时间更长、味道更好或外观更漂亮的水果。”

另一法国科研小组表示,他们绘制出了克里奥洛可可树76%的基因组图,并鉴定出了这种可可树基因组中的2.9万个基因,科学家可以据此从遗传学角度改进可可树作物。人类大约于3000多年前培育出了克里奥洛可可树,现在每年会生产约370万吨可可豆。

 

原文出处:

Nature Genetics doi:10.1038/ng.736

The genome of Theobroma cacao

Xavier Argout,Jerome Salse,Jean-Marc Aury,Mark J Guiltinan,Gaetan Droc,Jerome Gouzy,Mathilde Allegre,Cristian Chaparro,Thierry Legavre,Siela N Maximova,Michael Abrouk,Florent Murat,Olivier Fouet,Julie Poulain,Manuel Ruiz,Yolande Roguet,Maguy Rodier-Goud,Jose Fernandes Barbosa-Neto,Francois Sabot,Dave Kudrna,Jetty Siva S Ammiraju,Stephan C Schuster,John E Carlson,Erika Sallet,Thomas Schiex,et al.

We sequenced and assembled the draft genome of Theobroma cacao, an economically important tropical-fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate. This assembly corresponds to 76% of the estimated genome size and contains almost all previously described genes, with 82% of these genes anchored on the 10 T. cacao chromosomes. Analysis of this sequence information highlighted specific expansion of some gene families during evolution, for example, flavonoid-related genes. It also provides a major source of candidate genes for T. cacao improvement. Based on the inferred paleohistory of the T. cacao genome, we propose an evolutionary scenario whereby the ten T. cacao chromosomes were shaped from an ancestor through eleven chromosome fusions.

原文链接

Nature Genetics doi:10.1038/ng.740

The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

Vladimir Shulaev,Daniel J Sargent,Ross N Crowhurst,Todd C Mockler,Otto Folkerts,Arthur L Delcher,Pankaj Jaiswal,Keithanne Mockaitis,Aaron Liston,Shrinivasrao P Mane,Paul Burns,Thomas M Davis,Janet P Slovin,Nahla Bassil,Roger P Hellens,Clive Evans,Tim Harkins,Chinnappa Kodira,Brian Desany,Oswald R Crasta,Roderick V Jensen,Andrew C Allan,Todd P Michael,Joao Carlos Setubal,Jean-Marc Celton,et al.

The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14), is a versatile experimental plant system. This diminutive herbaceous perennial has a small genome (240 Mb), is amenable to genetic transformation and shares substantial sequence identity with the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and other economically important rosaceous plants. Here we report the draft F. vesca genome, which was sequenced to ×39 coverage using second-generation technology, assembled de novo and then anchored to the genetic linkage map into seven pseudochromosomes. This diploid strawberry sequence lacks the large genome duplications seen in other rosids. Gene prediction modeling identified 34,809 genes, with most being supported by transcriptome mapping. Genes critical to valuable horticultural traits including flavor, nutritional value and flowering time were identified. Macrosyntenic relationships between Fragaria and Prunus predict a hypothetical ancestral Rosaceae genome that had nine chromosomes. New phylogenetic analysis of 154 protein-coding genes suggests that assignment of Populus to Malvidae, rather than Fabidae, is warranted.

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