JAMA 子刊:晒太阳也可诱发自杀
2014/09/16
那些总是夸赞北欧雪景的人,可能更难忍受这里冬季的阳光匮乏,当地人需要通过晒太阳来缓解心情。近日一项研究让这种方式来缓解郁闷心情饱受打击,奥地利学者对跨越40年69462个自杀案例分析发现,短暂的晒太阳不仅无助于郁闷心情,反而增加自杀倾向。


北欧人什么都不缺只缺阳光,冬天的北欧阳光稀薄,很多居民都愿意到地中海或其他阳光充足的地方晒晒太阳。很多研究发现,阳光稀少与这里的犯罪和自杀有关,然而最近刊载在JAMA Psychiatry 的一项研究称,晒太阳也可诱发自杀。

这项研究对对奥地利1970年1月至2010年5月期间69462个自杀案例进行分析。此外,研究者还拿到了与这些死亡案例匹配的86个气象站收集的数据,它们记录着每天日照的时间。研究者发现,自杀率与阳光之间存在着密切的联系。

研究人员发现在一年中,刚开始的10天晴天是自杀率较高的一个阶段,而随后如果天晴数量累积到14-60天,那么自杀率会随之下降。这也就意味着短暂地暴露在阳光下,有增加自杀的风险,而如果持续数月,自杀的风险比例会下降。这在一定程度上抑制人们的自杀行为。研究人员也强调,这并不能说明阳光或防止自杀。

研究者称,这可能是晒太阳影响体内的血清素(serotonin),血清素会影响冲动、情绪和侵略等行为,它在自杀中常常扮演者重要的角色。阳光像抗抑郁药物可能影响冲动,然后影响心情。

来自维也纳大学的Matthaeus Willeit博士称,这项研究并不能为医生提供为病人的治疗意见,有关阳光与自杀率之间的关系研究还需要很长的路要走。“自杀是复杂的,有很多风险都可导致自杀。”

“通常,人们总是将自杀归结于生物或社会的因素,但事实上自杀并没有单一的原因,”他说,“这是一个众多因素导致的结果。而阳光只是众多风险因素之一。”尽管,我们需要将阳光考虑到能够增加自杀风险的因素,但是该项研究并不希望人们因此也避免晒太阳。
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  • Direct Effect of Sunshine on Suicide


    Importance It has been observed that suicidal behavior is influenced by sunshine and follows a seasonal pattern. However, seasons bring about changes in several other meteorological factors and a seasonal rhythm in social behavior may also contribute to fluctuations in suicide rates. Objective To investigate the effects of sunshine on suicide incidence that are independent of seasonal variation.

    Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective analysis of data on all officially confirmed suicides in Austria between January 1, 1970, and May 6, 2010 (n = 69 462). Data on the average duration of sunshine per day (in hours) were calculated from 86 representative meteorological stations. Daily number of suicides and daily duration of sunshine were differentiated to remove variation in sunshine and variation in suicide incidence introduced by season. Thereafter, several models based on Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated.

    Main Outcomes and Measures Correlation of daily number of suicides and daily duration of sunshine after mathematically removing the effects of season. Results Sunshine hours and number of suicides on every day from January 1, 1970, to May 6, 2010, were highly correlated (r = 0.4870; P < 10−9). After differencing for the effects of season, a mathematical procedure that removes most of the variance from the data, a positive correlation between number of suicides and hours of daily sunshine remained for the day of suicide and up to 10 days prior to suicide (rmaximum = 0.0370; P < 10−5). There was a negative correlation between the number of suicides and daily hours of sunshine for the 14 to 60 days prior to the suicide event (rminimum = −0.0383; P < 10−5). These effects were found in the entire sample and in violent suicides.

    Conclusions and Relevance Duration of daily sunshine was significantly correlated with suicide frequency independent of season, but effect sizes were low. Our data support the hypothesis that sunshine on the day of suicide and up to 10 days prior to suicide may facilitate suicide. More daily sunshine 14 to 60 days previously is associated with low rates of suicide. Our study also suggests that sunshine during this period may protect against suicide.

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