EHP:农药与自闭症有关
中国科技网 · 2014/06/30
最近,美国科学家发表的论文称,怀孕期间居住在使用农药的农田、牧场、公园、高尔夫球场等附近,将大幅增加孩子罹患自闭症的风险。


长期以来,科学家一直怀疑化学物质含量较高的环境与自闭症有关。美国科学家最新发表的论文称,怀孕期间居住在使用农药的农田、牧场、公园、高尔夫球场等附近,将大幅增加孩子罹患自闭症的风险。

美国加利福尼亚大学戴维斯分校研究人员在最新一期《环境状况观察》杂志上发表论文称,他们在分析了970名研究对象的医疗记录后发现,那些在距离使用农药的农田、牧场等环境约1.6千米范围内生活的怀孕妇女,所生孩子罹患自闭症或孩子发育迟缓的风险将比常人高出约70%。

这项研究所调查的农药主要包括有机磷酸酯类农药,广泛使用的杀虫剂“毒死蜱”,以及拟除虫菊酯和氨基甲酸酯等类型的农药。

研究人员发现,孕妇在第二孕期(14至28周)或第三孕期(28至42周)间在农药浓度高的环境中生活,孩子出生后患自闭症的风险最高。

美国疾病控制和预防中心公布的数据显示,近年来,美国儿童罹患自闭症的人数不断增加,每68人中就有一名自闭症患者。在美国人口较多的地区,这一比例则更高。
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  • Perinatal Air Pollutant Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Children of Nurses’ Health Study II Participants


    Objective: Air pollution contains many toxicants known to affect neurological function and to have effects on the fetus in utero. Recent studies have reported associations between perinatal exposure to air pollutants and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to air pollutants is associated with ASD, focusing on pollutants associated with ASD in prior studies.

    Methods: We estimated associations between U.S. Environmental Protection Agency–modeled levels of hazardous air pollutants at the time and place of birth and ASD in the children of participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (325 cases, 22,101 controls). Our analyses focused on pollutants associated with ASD in prior research. We accounted for possible confounding and ascertainment bias by adjusting for family-level socioeconomic status (maternal grandparents’ education) and census tract–level socioeconomic measures (e.g., tract median income and percent college educated), as well as maternal age at birth and year of birth. We also examined possible differences in the relationship between ASD and pollutant exposures by child’s sex.

    Results: Perinatal exposures to the highest versus lowest quintile of diesel, lead, manganese, and cadmium, and an overall measure of metals were significantly associated with ASD, with odds ratios ranging from 1.5 (for cadmium) to 2.0 (for diesel). In addition, linear trends were positive and statistically significant for most of these exposures (p < 0.05 for each). For most pollutants, associations were stronger for boys (279 cases) than for girls (46 cases) and significantly different according to sex.

    Conclusions: Perinatal exposure to air pollutants may increase risk for ASD. Additionally, future studies should consider sex-specific biological pathways connecting perinatal exposure to pollutants with ASD.

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