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J Neurosci:Ω-3脂肪酸可保护并帮助神经损伤再生

2012/01/17 来源:中国科技网
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最新发表在《神经科学期刊》上的一项研究称,在鱼油中发现的Omega-3脂肪酸不仅能够有效保护神经防其受损,且具有帮助受损神经再生的作用。

J Neurosci:Omega-3脂肪酸可保护并帮助神经损伤再生

许多人会因事故或伤害而神经受损,他们不仅会饱受疼痛折磨,还会因肌肉麻痹而逐渐瘫痪,难以恢复。最新发表在《神经科学期刊》上的一项研究称,在鱼油中发现的Omega-3脂肪酸不仅能够有效保护神经防其受损,且具有帮助受损神经再生的作用。

这项来自英国伦敦大学玛丽女王学院的研究,聚焦于外周神经细胞。外周神经是负责在大脑、脊髓与机体其他部分之间传递信号的神经,它们具有再生能力,但通常只有在轻度损伤时才能恢复好。

研究人员首先观察了分离的小鼠神经细胞。通过对细胞进行拉伸以及造成细胞缺氧,研究人员模拟出因事故或伤害造成的神经受损。一般来说,被拉伸或缺氧,是造成神经细胞死亡的两种典型损伤,而研究人员发现,在此种损伤下,细胞内富集的Omega-3脂肪酸会明显地对细胞进行保护,极大减少了神经细胞的死亡率。而随后研究人员对小鼠坐骨神经的研究发现,高水平的Omega-3脂肪酸能帮助小鼠更快、更完全地从骨神经损伤中恢复,减少神经受损造成的肌肉麻痹。

玛丽女王学院领导该项研究的阿迪娜·米歇尔-提图斯教授指出,以前研究表明,Omega-3脂肪酸对许多神经发育都有好处,而新研究显示,其在治疗外周神经损伤方面也具有重要作用,它们能保护受损的神经细胞,而这是成功恢复神经功能过程中关键的第一步。

Omega-3脂肪酸是一种对人体正常生长和发育十分重要的脂肪酸,因其对身体健康有益而被广泛研究。但因人体不能制造该种脂肪酸,所以只能从含油丰富的食物中,如海洋鱼类中摄取。


J Neurosci:Omega-3脂肪酸可保护并帮助神经损伤再生

Improved Outcome after Peripheral Nerve Injury in Mice with Increased Levels of Endogenous Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Stacy J. Gladman, Wenlong Huang, Siew-Na Lim, Simon C. Dyall, Sophie Boddy, Jing X. Kang, Martin M. Knight, John V. Priestley, and Adina T. Michael-Titus

Functional recovery after a peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is often poor. There is a need for therapies that protect neurons against injury and enhance regeneration. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to have therapeutic potential in a variety of neurological disorders, including acute traumatic injury. The objective of this study was to assess the neuroprotective and pro-regenerative potential of ω-3 PUFAs in PNI. We investigated this in mice that express the fat-1 gene encoding for ω-3 fatty acid desaturase, which leads to an increase in endogenous ω-3 PUFAs and a concomitant decrease in ω-6 PUFAs. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wild-type or fat-1 mice were subjected to a mechanical strain or hypoxic injury, and cell death was assessed using ethidium homodimer-1 labeling. The fat-1 background appears to confer robust neuroprotection against both injuries. We then examined the early functional and morphological changes in wild-type and fat-1 mice after a sciatic nerve crush. An accelerated functional recovery 7 d after injury was seen in fat-1 mice when assessed using von Frey filaments and the sciatic nerve functional index. These observations were also mapped to changes in injury-related markers. The injury-induced expression of ATF-3 was decreased in the DRG of fat-1 mice, whereas the axons detected 6 mm distal to the crush were increased. Fat-1 animals also had some protection against muscle atrophy after injury. In conclusion, both in vitro and in vivo experiments support the idea that a higher endogenous ω-3 PUFA could lead to beneficial effects after a PNI.

文献链接:http://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/2/563.abstract?sid=68eb8a0e-a4bc-4598-a3d4-da2aee4f44be

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