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Proc. R. Soc. B:乌鸦可综合分析声音和姿态识别伙伴

2012/01/16 来源:新华网
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“乌合之众”这个成语是指像乌鸦那样聚集在一起的无组织无纪律的一群人。而日本一项最新研究却为乌鸦“正名”,研究人员发现乌鸦能够通过综合分析伙伴的声音与姿态来识别对方,其群体也靠互相识别来维系。

Proc. R. Soc. B:乌鸦可综合分析声音和姿态识别伙伴

“乌合之众”这个成语是指像乌鸦那样聚集在一起的无组织无纪律的一群人。而日本一项最新研究却为乌鸦“正名”,研究人员发现乌鸦能够通过综合分析伙伴的声音与姿态来识别对方,其群体也靠互相识别来维系。

近年来的研究显示,乌鸦具有通过观察同伴的行动来学习的能力,乌鸦群体之间存在复杂的关系。但研究人员一直不清楚乌鸦是如何识别它的同伴的。

来自庆应义塾大学的研究人员在新一期英国《皇家学会学报B》上介绍说,他们在实验中,让两只乌鸦会面,然后用帘子把它们隔开,只在帘子与墙壁之间留个缝儿。接着,研究人员挪走一只乌鸦,然后在这一侧隔着帘子播放这只乌鸦或者其他乌鸦的叫声,并观察帘子那边的乌鸦反应有何不同。

结果发现,如果播放的叫声是被挪走的这只乌鸦的,隔壁乌鸦会以为没发生什么变化,因此没有异常反应。如果播放的叫声是其他乌鸦的,隔壁乌鸦马上就觉察出有变化,会“很快”而且“长时间”地窥视隔壁房间。


Proc. R. Soc. B:乌鸦可综合分析声音和姿态识别伙伴

Crows cross-modally recognize group members but not non-group members

Noriko Kondo, Ei-Ichi Izawa and Shigeru Watanabe

Recognizing other individuals by integrating different sensory modalities is a crucial ability of social animals, including humans. Although cross-modal individual recognition has been demonstrated in mammals, the extent of its use by birds remains unknown. Herein, we report the first evidence of cross-modal recognition of group members by a highly social bird, the large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). A cross-modal expectancy violation paradigm was used to test whether crows were sensitive to identity congruence between visual presentation of a group member and the subsequent playback of a contact call. Crows looked more rapidly and for a longer duration when the visual and auditory stimuli were incongruent than when congruent. Moreover, these responses were not observed with non-group member stimuli. These results indicate that crows spontaneously associate visual and auditory information of group members but not of non-group members, which is a demonstration of cross-modal audiovisual recognition of group members in birds.

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