2035年糖尿病患者数量将达5.92亿 结核病控制惨遭牵连
2014/09/05
据统计,2035年全球糖尿病患者数量预计达5.92亿人,这将大大影响全球结核病疫情的控制。过去三年里,22个结核病负担严重的国家糖尿病患病率增加了52%,糖尿病相关的结核病例也从10%增加到了15%。想要实现2035年降低结核病发病率90%的宏伟愿望,必须加倍努力。


大量研究表明,全球15%的成人结核病是由糖尿病引起的。这些与糖尿病相关的结核病每年超过100万例,40%以上发生在印度和中国。如果糖尿病的发病率继续呈失控态不断上升,到2035年,全球结核病例的下降趋势将降低8%。

糖尿病会增加活动性结核病发生的风险,并与结核病恶劣的预后有关。另一方面,结核病感染也使糖尿病患者的血糖控制变得更加糟糕。因此,如果糖尿病在结核病流行地区普遍存在,那么,卫生保健系统将面临着这种双重疾病的挑战。

全球糖尿病发展情况

据国际糖尿病联合会统计,2013年全球糖尿病患者数量达3.82亿人,较2003年时的1.94亿翻了一番。预计到2035年,这一数字将达到5.92亿人。

糖尿病患者中,约80%分布在中低收入国家。2013年,糖尿病人口排名中,中国、印度、美国位列前三;全球约510万人死于糖尿病,数量接近因吸烟而引起的死亡人数(600万人)。

世界卫生组织在2013至2020年行动计划中提出,争取到2025年使糖尿病等非传染性疾病死亡人数减少25%。

患糖尿病人数快速增长对结核病的影响

糖尿病对结核病疫情的影响越来越严重。在过去的三年里(2010-2013),22个结核病负担严重的国家糖尿病患病率增加了52%。而在这三年期间,糖尿病相关的结核病例从10%增加到了15%。


与糖尿病相关的结核病人数排名前十国家

WHO全球结核病计划的 Knut Lönnroth博士称,糖尿病患者的不断增加严重影响了结核病的控制。这种双重负担为这两种疾病的预防和治疗都带来了障碍。糖尿病患者患结核病的风险比非糖尿病患者高出3倍,治疗期间的死亡风险高出2倍,治疗后的复发率高出4倍。

令人担忧的是,在未来的几十年里,糖尿病对结核病患病率的影响将更加严重。到2035年,全球结核病发病率的下降趋势将比预计至少低3%,最悲观的估计,可能会低8%。不过,考虑到全球在糖尿病和结核病预防和改善方面的努力,到2035年,结核病患病人数将会进一步减少15%或者更多。

Lönnroth博士说:“如果我们想要实现2035年降低结核病发病率90%的宏伟愿望,那就必须更加积极努力地诊断和治疗结核病和糖尿病,尤其是这两种疾病都很流行的国家。这些国家应进一步加大预防和治疗慢性疾病的投资,如糖尿病、肥胖等。”

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