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The Lancet:全球约2亿人使用非法药物

2012/01/09 来源:广州日报
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美国《柳叶刀》杂志6日刊登一份研究报告,称全球大约两亿人使用非法药物。

非法药物

美国《柳叶刀》杂志刊登了一份研究报告,称全球大约两亿人使用非法药物。

研究人员所参考资料包括联合国毒品和犯罪问题办事处公布的数字、各国调查报告以及关于毒品使用影响的报告。迷幻药、滥用处方药以及合成代谢类固醇不在报告统计范畴。报告说,2009年,全球有1.49亿至2.71亿人使用非法药物,其中1.25亿至2.03亿人吸食大麻;1500万至3900万人吸食海洛因、吗啡等鸦片类药物以及苯丙胺和可卡因;1100万至2100万人注射毒品。报告写道:“大麻可能导致上瘾和精神紊乱,却似乎不会提高死亡率……过度使用非法鸦片类药物是致死的主要原因。”另外,注射毒品时可能共用针头,这使感染艾滋病和肝炎病毒的风险高。


参考文献

Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease

 Louisa Degenhardt , Wayne Hall 

This paper summarises data for the prevalence, correlates, and probable adverse health consequences of problem use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. We discuss findings from systematic reviews of the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, remission from dependence, and mortality in illicit drug users, and evidence for acute and chronic effects of illicit drug use. We outline the regional and global distribution of use and estimated health burden from illicit drugs. These distributions are likely to be underestimates because they have not included all adverse outcomes of drug use and exclude those of cannabis—the mostly widely used illicit drug. In high-income countries, illicit drug use contributes less to the burden of disease than does tobacco but a substantial proportion of that due to alcohol. The major adverse health effects of cannabis use are dependence and probably psychotic disorders and other mental disorders. The health-related harms of cannabis use differ from those of amphetamine, cocaine, and opioid use, in that cannabis contributes little to mortality. Intelligent policy responses to drug problems need better data for the prevalence of different types of illicit drug use and the harms that their use causes globally. This need is especially urgent in high-income countries with substantial rates of illicit drug use and in low-income and middle-income countries close to illicit drug production areas.

文献链接:http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/vol379no9810/PIIS0140-6736(12)X6001-X

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